2083 A European Declaration of Independence

August 1, 2011

3.35 Physical training, packing gear and running simulations before the operation

Filed under: Uncategorized — sitamnesty @ 21:00

Survival is the art of staying alive. Mental attitude is as important as physical endurance and knowledge.

Think of survival skills as a pyramid, built on the foundation of the will to survive. The next layer of the pyramid is knowledge. It breeds confidence and dispels fears. The third layer is training: mastering skills and maintaining them. To cap the pyramid, add your equipment. Combine the instinct for survival with knowledge, training and equipment and you will be ready for anything. You will become a one-man army.

Getting fit, “Physical transformation period”, prior to operation

You are going have to go through a “physical transformation period” to prepare yourself as a Justiciar Knight before you engage in armed resistance against the cultural Marxist/multiculturalist establishment. As such, the struggle requires determination, courage, and top physical conditioning.

This might seem trivial for some but very challenging or impossible to others. As for me, I had to overcome huge obstacles due to the fact that my physical conditioning was at a bottom low after more than a decade of office work and inactivity. Nevertheless, a hard training program in combination with the use of protein supplements, Winstrol and Stack 2 helped me reach superb physical condition in less than four months.

This is how you can overcome these obstacles:

Start your physical training programme at least 4 months prior to operation. Joining your local gym is the logical approach. You should try to reach your optimal weight (lose weight if necessary), considering the fact that you most likely will have to carry up to 40kg of equipment (body armour/weapons etc). Set up your training programme; f example 2-3 days of weight training and 2-3 days of jogging or spinning. Signing up for “40-50 min “spinning classes” is an excellent alternative as you will be pushed for the full duration by the gym trainer. You can also consider jogging with 40kgs weights. You can create an outfit for these sessions consisting of a jacket with weights (heavy objects in the pockets and a metal pipe in your arms equivalent to the weight of an assault rifle). It will most likely look completely ridiculous but it would be a good physical simulation.

A good training schedule in combination with a diet is the recipe for the desired results. You should really consider using steroids to reach your goal. There are many misconceptions related to the use of steroids but it is in fact the most logical approach. Not all people are motivated for strict training courses. Using stimulants can increase, not only your motivation but your agility, speed, strength and endurance by up to 200% depending on your current foundation.

Martial arts and melee combat techniques

Martial arts or fighting arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for combat. Martial arts all have a very similar objective: defend oneself or others from a physical threat. In addition, some martial arts are linked to beliefs such as Hinduism while others follow a particular code of honour. Martial arts are considered as both an art and a science. The term martial arts refers to the art of warfare (derived from Mars, the Roman god of war) and comes from a 15th-century European term referring to what are now known as historical European martial arts. Europe is home to many extensive systems of fighting, both living traditions that have existed through the present and others which are now being reconstructed.

A common characteristic of martial art is the systematization of fighting techniques. Methods of training vary and may include sparring (simulated combat). This includes such styles as sword and shield, two-handed sword fighting, halberd fighting and other types of melee weapons combat. European martial arts have mostly adapted to changing technology so that while some traditional arts still exist, military personnel are trained in skills like bayonet combat and marksmanship.

My own country, Norway, has a millennium-long tradition in Viking-sword techniques or more popularly referred to as broad-sword techniques. A forward, basic heavy thrust with a Viking sword, could f example cut a man in two. It usually takes 3 years of hard training to fully master a broad-sword. However, regardless of how patriotic it would be to become a master of my Dyback Wiking sword replica (excellent combat-ready replicas, using traditional crafting methods are still produced in Toledo, Spain) we must sadly conclude that a majority of our traditional weapons and traditional European fighting techniques are obviously illogical and even counter-productive for current use.

Marksmanship and bayonet training

The most pragmatic approach for Justiciar Knight martial arts training includes marksmanship training, bayonet training (and simulations involving your additional defensive spikes/knives) and basic full contact fighting techniques for defensive and offensive purposes.

Muai Thai

As for basic, full contact, defensive and offensive fighting techniques I would highly recommend Muai Thai.

Muay Thai is a hard martial art from Thailand and is referred to as the "Art of Eight Limbs" or the "Science Of Eight Limbs" because it makes use of punches, kicks, elbows and knee strikes, thus using eight "points of contact", as opposed to "two points" (fists) in Western boxing and "four points" (hands and feet) used in sport-oriented martial arts.

Almost all techniques in Muay Thai use the entire body movement, rotating the hip with each kick, punch, elbow, block and includes the following techniques:

Punching

Jab, hook, swing, spinning backfist, uppercut and cobra.

Elbow

Elbow slash, horizontal elbow, uppercut elbow, forward elbow thrust, reverse horizontal elbow, spinning elbow, elbow chop, double elbow chop and mid-air elbow strike.

Kicking

Straight kick, roundhouse kick, half-knee kick, spinning heel kick, down roundhouse kick, axe heel kick, jump kick, step-up kick, straight knee strike, diagonal knee strike, curving knee strike, horizontal knee strike, knee slap, knee bomb, jumping knee, stap-up knee strike, straight foot-thrust, sideways foot-thrust, reverse foot-thrust, slapping foot-thrust and jumping foot-thrust.

Clinch and neck wrestling

In Western boxing the two fighters are separated when they clinch; in Muay Thai, however, they are not. It is often in the clinch where knee and elbow techniques are used. Normally, if you are in a clinch with someone and unable to use any of your weapons, always go for the neck. Simply punching the neck (Adam’s apple) with a certain force should neutralise a majority of threats as the neck is the most vulnerable and potentially lethal point.

Justiciar Knight martial art

It’s time for us, the European revolutionary patriots, to remember our prowess as warriors and to make sure our enemies remember it as well. Considering the fact that a Justiciar Knight is armed with not only a primary and secondary weapon but melee weapons as well, we will have little use for the majority of Muai Thai techniques (although knowledge and experience with basic techniques can be useful). Even if a Justiciar Knight wanted to, he would be physically unable to use many of these techniques due to the weight of the gear he carries and the resulting movement limitations. This will of course vary as each Justiciar Knight Commander decides what type of armour and gear to use depending on the specific operation.

If I were to attempt to describe the martial art form of my specific operation it would resemble that of the extremely mobile juggernaut (deployable human tank). My relatively heavy but strong level III ballistic armour (+ shield and level III helmet with visor) would counter the MP5 fire threat from my city’s system protectors. As for information concerning the operatives in my cell, I cannot disclose anything that might indicate number of individuals or their methods and/or tasks. As for my own role; the weight of the armour would prevent me from running long distances; however, this will be compensated by using light vehicles to get from one location to the other. This particular approach can be described as a “system protector – “flank buster” technique, constructed to charge and annihilate an improvised system protector flank, if necessary. It is likely that I will have to attempt to charge and annihilate one of these flanks close to my second or third target location. The spikes on the shield, neck, arms and boots, in addition to the bayonet would also be highly efficient against any civilians or system protectors trying to jump you from behind.

End note: keep in mind that the custom designed defensive spikes/knives must not impair your ability to drive a car.

A quick guide to the optimal diet

Your diet will be based on your current physical state. Whether you are in your current match weight (optimal weight) or if you are too skinny or even overweight – you should set up a diet based on your physical goals. In either case, you should consider using the absolute best dietary supplements on the market. Having trained weights on and off since I was 12, I have learned a lot about an optimal diet. I recently spent (again) several hours researching a multitude of products reading hundreds of reviews and concluded with the following dietary products which apply for an individual who has to lose 7 kg of fat and gain 7-10 kg of muscle mass. My specific diet includes following a 2300 calorie per day dietary program until I manage to burn the fat – then stabilise/build on approximately 2500-2800 calories.

Protein powder

Gold Standard 100% Whey (2 bags, total of 10 kg).

Gold Standard 100% Whey Protein won the Supplement Of The Year and Protein Powder Of The Year award for 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 for a good reason. It is a really good product. The best flavour, according to reviews, is “double rich chocolate”.

Creatine capsules

Creatine Ethyl Ester capsules (6 boxes x 240 capsules)

Creatine is by far, one of the best discoveries that has hit the bodybuilding/fitness world. Creatine monohydrate has proven effective in increasing muscle mass, strength and all around athletic performance. Creatine Ethyl Ester is an exceptionally soluble creatine resulting in advanced absorption, increased bioavailability, and stability. Instead of saturating your system in creatine and hoping for absorption, creatine ethyl ester directly penetrates the muscle cell resulting in 30 to 40 times more functional creatine.

Protein chocolate bars

Carb Conscious Bar” by “Supreme Protein” (8 variety packs x 12 bars)

Carb Conscious Bar” by “Supreme Protein” won the “Protein Bar of the Year 2009” award. The bar is packed with premium-grade protein blend, powered by more high-quality whey isolate than any other product of its kind. This pure and powerful protein is unmatched in amino content, bioavailability and muscle-building benefits. You will find even better bars out there, however, they will taste like sh.. compared to this one. They all taste excellent.

I paid a total of 600 USD for the above products. Needless to say, there are many European brands that are suitable as well. However, considering the fact that the USD is so weak at the moment you will get a lot more when ordering these products (or others) from US based – bodybuilding.com.

A quick guide to oral anabolic steroids

The use of anabolic steroids will significantly increase your agility, speed, strength and endurance. A good alternative in this regard is Winstrol (stanazolol) in tablet form (liquid form is slightly better if you don’t mind needles, which I do). Winstrol is one of the most popular drugs considering the fact that it has very few side effects (androgenic side effects are almost zero). It also increases your metabolism which will help you lose body fat while building muscle mass. Anavar works as well, but I wouldn’t recommend Dianabol, Halotestin and Maxibolin which are designed for ”bulking your muscles”. EPO is another drug that enhances endurance.

Steroids are usually taken in 6 week cycles followed by a 6 week break. Make sure that your operation is within a cycle.

Winstrol specification

Winstrol is an orally or injectable applicable steroid with a great effect on protein metabolism. Winstrol (Stanozolol) is a derivative of testosterone and has very strong anabolic and androgenic properties. Winstrol has a great effect on protein metabolism and promotes protein synthesis. This effect manifests itself by creating a positive nitrogen balance, supporting the building up of protein and thus skeletal muscle mass. Winstrol also induces an improved sense of well-being. Appetite stimulation, increased muscle mass, increased bone density, increased red blood cells are the common effects of Winstrol.

End note: I ended up with DBOL and winstrol tabs. Yes, I am aware of the fact that there are much better products out there but these will have to suffice. I will do 4 weeks with DBOL followed by 2 weeks of winstrol, obviously in combination with hard training and an appropriate diet consisting of a minimum of 200g protein per day (prot powder) etc. My training program will consist of 50% strength and 50% cardio. I ordered the DBOL+ Winstrol tabs from an online store called “Alinshop” who offers “paperbol”, a new shipping method for sending tablets safely through the mail. The essence of the method is the following: tablets are glued vertically on a sheet of paper, resulting in a thickness of no more than 0,2 cm. As such, the shipment is sent as a thin “letter” and avoids the custom scrutiny reserved for “packages”. It is a highly efficient technique used to send anabolic tablets safely through the Western postal systems. I received my “letter” without any problems with a total of 3000 tablets of DBOL and Winstrol. Alinshop has its office in the Balkans. I intend to do at least more test cycle and one last “operational cycle”.

Countering the water/fluid retention from DBOL

The problem with DBOL is that 20-50% of your weight gain is from water/fluid retention. Fluid bloats the muscles and adds little or no strength gain at all. If you can control the water retention with Arimidex or Aromasin, DBOL is fine and you will experience exceptional muscle/strength gain with little water retention.

Aromasin (exemestane), the best

Arimedex, the second best

Use aromasin at 0,25-5 mg per day (drink a lot of water to prevent dehydration)

Aromasin is better because it’s easy on HDL, it will free up test lower shbg, can cause muscle gains and is much better tolerated and more effective (suppression profile wise) as compared to Arimidex. You will find very few people that prefer Arimidex over Aromasin.

Non-steroid means to avoid too much water/fluid retention.

  • Reduce your sodium/pottassium intake as both are potent regulators of fluid retention. Sodium is salt (sodium chloride) and f example tuna fish is loaded with sodium).

  • Regular H2o (water) intake is a good idea as it help keep the system flushed.

  • Watch carbohydrate intake as too much carbs will lead to fluid retention. It takes 300-400ml of water to store 100g of carbs.

Generally, if you run a test prop cycle (testosterone propionate), instead of DBOL you will get little to no water retention. The drawback (if any) is that you have to take “test prop” through syringe and needle as its half life in pill form prohibits oral intake.

End note: after testing both DBOL and Winstrol tabs extensively I am likely to go with WIN on the mission as it will lessen the water retention significantly. I may use 1 week of DBOL (10 mg tabs x 4 times per day) followed by 1-2 weeks of Winstrol (10 mg tabs x 4 times per day) prior to operation. I may increase the dosage to 50 mg per day since I didn’t notice any side effects while using 40 mg. Just remember; never use alcohol when on steroids and always couple the above with 3 tabs of Milk Thistle per day for additional liver protection.

Using stimulants – Ephedrine + caffeine mix (“Stack”)

Ephedrine

When administered, ephedrine will notably increase the activity of the central nervous system, as well as have a stimulatory effect on other target cells. This will produce a number of effects beneficial to the user.

The stimulant effect of the drug will also increase the force of skeletal muscle contractions. For this reason ephedrine is commonly used by athletes as the resultant strength and energy increase will clearly improve performance. It will also provide a notable mental edge, as the user is more energetic and better able to concentrate on the tasks ahead.

It is important that this compound not be used continuously as its effect will diminish as the body becomes accustomed to the drug.

Side effects can be: shaky hands, tremors, sweating, rapid heartbeat, dizziness and feelings of inner unrest. Often these effects subside as the user becomes more accustomed to the effect of this drug. As long as you don’t use ephedrine on an empty stomach this shouldn’t be a problem.

Stack (Ephedrine + caffeine mix)

New studies indicate that ephedrine works best when ingested along with caffeine.

Ephedrine combined with caffeine has proven to be a powerful stimulant increasing physical performance by aprox. 39%. Heart rates were slightly higher with the ephedrine-caffeine combo, but any physical workout will feel considerably easier.

It’s important that you test it out a few times to ensure that your body can handle it well with the desired effects (don’t use it if you have a heart condition).

Products containing ephedrine, caffeine (and often aspirin) is legal in many European countries and are selling under various brands: Stack 2, Stacker 2 among other names.

Personal note: Ive used “Stack II” occasionally for several years. Especially during the period when I used to work long hours (12 hours per day). I can personally attest to the fact that it is an amazing stimulant. Obviously, it’s not healthy which is why I only used it for a couple of years, after that only rarely.

Acquiring the ECA stack stimulant in Europe – ephedrine (E), caffeine (C) and aspirin (A) combination stack

After the EU and US ban on ephedrine products it is now practically impossible to acquire the ECA stack legally (ephedrine, caffeine and aspirine combination stack). They have even banned these products in Thailand. So unless you have some hardcore globetrotter bodybuilder contacts you will want to consider making this ECA stack yourself using base materials. Trust me when I say; you WANT this enhancer for your operation as it will significantly increase your strength, agility and focus with up to 30-50% for 1-2 hours after taking 1 capsule. This enhancer, in combination with a steroid cycle, will increase your physical and mental abilities by up to 100% transforming you into an unstoppable one man army when used in combination with proper training and a full range of body armour and weapons.

Tips and tricks when creating your own ECA stack (tips credited to Swathorne):

It is important to emphasize that you should purchase pure ephedrine and not ephedra. Be wary of products sold over the internet that contain the natural ephedra extract. These may also be advertised as containing Ma Huang. Ephedra products could contain toxins or defects especially considering that the products may have been produced in countries with little to no regulation on ephedrine products. Pure ephedrine is less likely to bring about negative side effects due to its lab produced nature and the regulation placed upon its distribution.

Any product containing ephedrine hcl that is sold as an over the counter drug in a pharmacy is pure ephedrine. I strongly recommend purchasing pure ephedrine and doing so in person at a pharmacy or from a reputable pharmaceutical company and merchant online. As always I remind the readership that you use ephedrine hcl at your own risk and even though it is an over the counter drug it can still be dangerous if used irresponsibly. Remember to always drink a lot of water when using and never use ephedrine if you have a heart condition!

It is often advisable to create your own simple ECA stack using pure ephedrine and pure caffeine that you can physically see and administer themselves rather than buy a magic pill off the internet that contains some blend of ephedra products and whatever other questionable supplements or herbs the manufacturer put into a capsule. Caffeine aids ephedrine by enhancing the body’s thermogenic response to ephedrine.

How to aquire pure ephedrine, pure caffeine and aspirin

Many bodybuilders, fitness enthusiasts and other individuals are now creating their own ECA stack for the intention of using it as a weight loss supplement. Ephedrine hcl, this over the counter nasal decongestant, is simply a purified form of the ephedra found in many of the well thought of weight loss pills before the ban. You create your own ECA stack by purchasing ephedrine hcl, caffeine, and aspirin online or at convenience/drug stores.

  • Ephedrine hcl tabs can only be bought legally in the US, the UK and Finland. It is very hard to acquire in all other Western European countries. Ordering online will therefore be the most convenient way to get it. Popular brands of ephedrine HCL include Vasopro, Bolt, and Primatene. Typically ephedrine HCL comes in doses of 8 mg, 12.5mg, 25mg, or 30mg. For ephedrine weight loss 25mg is recommended. If you have problems acquiring ephedrine in Europe, it is sold in Walgreens in the US so you might want to visit the store if you are going to the US for any other purpose (to buy body armour or AP-light projectiles for self loading.

  • Buy 200 mg caffeine pills from your drug store/vitamin/herb shop

  • Buy aspirin from any store

Abuse of ephedrine can result in serious side effects so please use caution when choosing the right dosage. Remember to test your tolerance for the ECA stack so that you are guaranteed a proper dose during your operation (not too much, not too little). Taking too much ephedrine in you ECA stack too early on can result in dangerously high blood pressure and if you fail to drink anything after taking a stack you may feel you are about to faint. You may want to use the ECA stack for a whole week before the operation in order to ensure you can measure your exact tolerance level. Start out using half the recommended dose of ephedrine hcl and work your way up. Never overdo it as it’s not worth risking.

Just ensure that you research proper dosing. Personally, I would take one dosage 20 minutes prior to the initiation of the operation and another one 1,5-2 hours after that based on my condition.

Dosage

Typically the ECA stack is consumed two or three times per day in a 1:10:10 or 1:10:15 ratio of ephedrine:caffeine:Aspirin. Usually, no more than 25 mg of ephedrine, 200 mg of caffeine and 325 mg of Aspirin is consumed in a single dose. It is not recommended that the stack be taken past late afternoon as this may contribute to insomnia. Never take ECA stack daily for more than 4 consecutive weeks.

Using pure caffeine pills is recommended but ephedrine free diet pills like Stacker or Stacker 4 can be used in conjunction with ephedrine hcl and make a very effective ECA stack.

Status in the United States

In the United States, it is illegal to market products containing ephedrine or ephedra alkaloids as a dietary supplement. However, ephedrine itself has never been illegal in the United States and is currently available over-the-counter.

Status in the EU

Ephedrine and ephedra-containing supplements are currently banned in the European Union (exceptions are the UK and Finland). However, Ephedrine is currently available by prescription in several EU countries (it is bought in pill form as a nasal dongestant).

Alternative source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ECA_stack

End note:

I first tried buying ECA in Sweden unsuccessfully (tried 2 bodybuilder stores who where rumoured to sell it under the counter). After a lot of research, I ended up ordering the products from the following site:

I ordered the products separately and did a test order with the caffeine tabs in order to confirm that their logistical method was safe. The caffeine shipment came flat-packed (vacuum packed, no noise and only 5 mm thick) in a discrete envelope (they look like a letter and are marked as natural herbal product/gift on the customs note on the backside of the letter.

I was concerned that the envelope shipment of ephedrine would also state: “natural herbal product” as this would be an invitation to open the package. However, the ephedrine envelope came completely without any notes.

So ultimately, both “letters” came through without any problems. Ordering online always involve some risk though. If the ephedrine shipment had been stopped in customs I would get a 750 Euro fine and the Norwegian customs would automatically press charges (although the case would be dismissed due to lack of police capacity), as ephedrine is labeled as a narcotic substance in Norway. The risk is minimal though (less than 3%) as the envelope shipment looks like a regular letter with absolutely no indicators.

When you have acquired the caffeine and ephedrine tabs just buy the aspirin at your local drug store, and buy empty gelatin capsules from your nearest herbal/health store (vegetarian gelatin capsules are common, buy the largest ones measuring 11-13 mm). Alternatively, you may order gelatin capsules from: capsuline.com.

Since I now have my ECA ingredients I’m going to test it using the following dosage:

  • 8 mg ephedrine = 1 tab (NEVER take more than 25 mg in a single dose)

  • 200 mg caffeine

  • 250 mg aspirin

It should be noted that I am not unfamiliar with using the ECA stack. I used it a few years ago, when it was legal in Sweden, during my 12 hour work hours (“financial phase” from age 21 to age 25). Needless to say; they helped me endure a few years of 10-12 hour work days which facilitated and subsidized my subsequent “sabbatical years” which were dedicated to travel, writing this compendium and prepare for the later phases of the operation.

As for the final phase; as I have already acquired the ingredients for the ECA stack I made the capsules in the above mentioned dosage (I first tried with 8 and 16 mg but ended up with 3 tabs of 8 mg each. Test and increase/decrease dosage as suited for your body type. Keep in mind that you don’t need a lot of ECA stack tabs. You should test out your tolerance beforehand, but limit your use to include the few days prior to the operation or else you risk building up a partial immunity to the substances. At the same time; you should ensure that you use it for a few days prior to operation so that you know that your body will tolerate your selected dose well.

If you don’t feel like mixing your own ECA stack you may order pre-mixed stack tabs from the same site (centurysupplements.com). All of their ephedrine products and most of their ECA stacks are shipped flat packaged, except for the Lipodrene, Stimerex, ECA Xtreme and the Firestarter.

Marksmanship training

Target practise is likely going to be a problem for many people in certain countries (urban Europeans like us, ouch:). Consider taking a vacation to a country where you are able to train in marksmanship or join a gun club. Simulation by playing Call of Duty, Modern Warfare is a good alternative as well but you should try to get some practise with a real assault rifle (with red point optic) if possible. There are select 2nd or 3rd world countries that offer arrangements where you can practise with an assault rifle. Try avoiding Muslim and African countries (unless you are travelling in a group) as they are very racist/discriminating towards Europeans. There are security courses which is arranged by various security companies around the world as well. Lots of opportunities for those of us with creativity and enough cash:)

End note 1: I will try to order a one week “shooting vacation” in a Christian African country. I will try to find a “gun resort” with access to assault rifles. I may bring my own “red point” aim in order to get used to it.

End note 2: As i have now acquired a legal semi automatic Ruger Mini 14 I can legally practice at the gun range. Full auto training is not really required.

Packing gear

The Boy Scouts motto is the right one. Make sure you are physically and mentally prepared before you set out and pack the appropriate gear for what you plan to do.

Approximately 40 kg of equipment including full body armour, weapons and ammo.

– Lighter

– Bandage + tape)

– Small flash light

– Police radio with ear plug (optional)

– Portable gas mask (optional)

– Mini Ipod with your favourite playlist for moral boost (essential:)

– Cyanide capsule (potassium cyanide), tied in a string around your neck.

– 1 litre of water (camel back)

– 2 adrenaline shots

Include a bandage and duck tape to cover your likely needs in case of injury. It can ensure that you don’t bleed to death.

Divide the operation into phases: entry phase, objective and recovery. Clearly state the aim of each phase and work out a time scale. Plan for emergency procedures such as vehicle breakdown, injury etc. Allow plenty of time when estimating the rate of progress. Pressure to keep to an over-ambitious schedule leads to exhaustion and errors of judgement.

Gain as much knowledge of the terrain as possible: know every street. Be prepared in case anything goes wrong. What will you do if a vehicle breaks down, what will you do if you get injured or flanked?

Facing disaster

It is no use giving up. Only positive action can save you. People can survive seemingly impossible situations if they have the determination. Do what you can to avoid system protectors (police forces) and complete your objectives. A Justiciar Knight never surrenders. If we are facing and impossible situation we relly on our armour and training and fight to the death if necessary.

Survival stresses

The survival situation will put you under physical and mental pressure. You will have to overcome some or all of the following stresses:

  • Fear and anxiety

  • Pain and injury

  • Thirst and fatigue

  • Boredom

Can you cope? You have to!

Self-confidence is a product of good training and sound knowledge. These must be acquired before you face a survival situation. Confidence will help you overcome the mental stresses. Physical fitness will give you the resources to cope with fatigue. The fitter you are the better you will survive. Start training now.

It is important to treat any injury as soon as possible, but pain may have to be overcome and controlled in order to avoid the risk of further injury or death.

Severe bleeding

An adult has up to 6 litres. Loss of 0,5 litres of blood causes mild faintness, 1 litre causes faintness, increased pulse rate and shallow breathing. 1,5 litres leads to collapse, more than 2,25 litres can be fatal. Immediate steps must be taken to stop the flow of blood. Internal bleeding may not be apparent. If severe, it often leads to shock and can kill.

Bleeding from veins and capillaries can be stemmed by simple pressure over the bleeding point, with or without a dressing. Ideally the wound should be covered with your bandage and taped to prevent blood loss.

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