2083 A European Declaration of Independence

August 1, 2011

3.54 Sabotage operations – the most efficient ways to cripple the current Western European multiculturalist regimes

Filed under: Uncategorized — sitamnesty @ 19:25

Sabotage operations

Ask for no mercy, and give none.”

Primary military objectives of the PCCTS, Knights Templar:

  1. Shock attacks (assassinations included)

  2. Sabotage attacks

Before we start discussing strategies for sabotage we have to agree on the foundational premise for the valuation of sabotage over shock attacks.

A regime, in our case all the cultural Marxist regimes of Western Europe, cannot be defeated without devastating/paralyzing the fundament of the regime. The primary fundament of a regime is its economy. Of course, a shock attack will contribute to weaken a regimes economy but specific and advanced sabotage missions aimed at weakening a regime economically is an essential requirement in order to eventually defeat it. No regime in history has ever been overthrown before it has first been considerably weakened through multiple shock/sabotage attacks. The reason is that the people will not rise and fight for their ideals as long as we live in economical prosperity. The various Western European armed resistance groups basis for existence is to keep recruiting. As long as a society has a thriving economy this will be literally impossible due to the fact that the regime would be able to keep the unemployment rate at a minimum. We will struggle with recruitment in the first decades of the civil war, phase 1 – 2010-2030, but as the national economies are gradually crippled (primarily through decreasing national cohesion, allowing China to join the WTO/globalisation, radicalisation of Muslims and other factors) we will experience an increasing recruitment rate due to increased EU unemployment rate. The people of Europe will be willing to stand up and fight for their principles when they are already suffering. As such, it must be a priority to contribute to cripple the cultural Marxist regimes economies further through our emphasis on sabotage operations, using any and all means available.

We have covered the importance of shock attacks in other chapters. The most efficient shock attacks are successful operations launched against the cultural Marxist category A and B traitors themselves targeting government buildings, media HQs and other concentrations of cultural Marxist/multiculturalist elites. Alternatives include assassinations. The primary purpose of shock attacks is not necessarily to cause as much infrastructure/personnel damage as possible (with the exception of harming as many category A and B traitors as possible) but to rather sow terror in the hearts of our enemies and everyone supporting them, thus inflicting massive ideological damage.

An equally important task will be sabotage missions. The primary purpose of sabotage missions is to cause system disruptions or contribute to gradual but devastating economic losses to the cultural Marxist regime. The most potent and efficient way of doing this is to select targets and use means that will trigger secondary reactions and effects. These secondary reactions/effects can be f example pollution/oil spills (requiring extremely expensive cleanup operations), damage on the electricity or communications net.

The common factor for both types of operations (shock or sabotage) is that we must keep civilian casualties at an absolute minimum.

Before you start your research in potential sabotage targets you must study historical cases (accidents/attacks):

Top 9 list of sabotage targets

This includes property damage and expenses incurred related to the accidents/ attacks with secondary effects such as the subsequent cleanup and industry losses. Many of these accidents/attacks involve casualties which obviously cannot be measured in currency terms. Each life lost is priceless and is not factored into the equation.

9. Tanker Truck vs Bridge $358 Million

On August 26, 2004, a car collided with a tanker truck containing 32,000 litres of fuel on the Wiehltal Bridge in Germany. The tanker crashed through the guardrail and fell 90 feet off the A4 Autobahn resulting in a huge explosion and fire which destroyed the load-bearing ability of the bridge. Temporary repairs cost $40 million and the cost to replace the bridge is estimated at $318 Million.

8. MetroLink Crash $500 Million

On September 12, 2008, in what was one of the worst train crashes in California history, 25 people were killed when a Metrolink commuter train crashed head-on into a Union Pacific freight train in Los Angeles. It is thought that the Metrolink train may have run through a red signal while the conductor was busy text messaging. Wrongful death lawsuits are expected to cause $500 million in losses for Metrolink.

7. Phillips Disaster – Oct. 23 1989 Pasadena, Texas, – $1,4 Billion*

The Phillips Disaster refers to a devastating series of explosions and fire in October of 1989, near the Houston Ship Channel in Texas, USA. The initial blast registered 3.5 on the Richter Scale, and the conflagration took 10 hours to bring under control. Some 23 employees were killed and 314 were injured. An explosion affected all facilities within the complex, causing $715.5 million worth of damage plus an additional business disruption loss estimated at $700 million.

6. Oklahoma City Bombing – $1,5 Billion (based on 9/11 numbers minus 25%)

The Oklahoma City bombing was a terrorist attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a U.S. government office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The attack claimed 168 lives and left over 800 injured. Until the September 11, 2001 attacks, it was the deadliest act of terrorism on U.S. soil, and remains the deadliest act of domestic terrorism in American history. Within days after the bombing, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were both in custody for their roles in the bombing. Investigators determined that McVeigh and Nichols were sympathisers of an anti-government militia movement and that their motive was to avenge the government’s handling of the Waco siege and Ruby Ridge incidents.

5. Exxon Valdez $2.5 Billion

The Exxon Valdez oil spill was not a large one in relation to the world’s biggest oil spills, but it was a costly one due to the remote location of Prince William Sound (accessible only by helicopter and boat). On March 24, 1989, 10.8 million gallons of oil was spilled when the ship’s master, Joseph Hazelwood, left the controls and the ship crashed into a Reef. The cleanup cost Exxon $2.5 billion.

4. Piper Alpha Oil Rig $3.4 Billion

The world’s worst off-shore oil disaster. At one time, it was the world’s single largest oil producer, spewing out 317,000 barrels of oil per day. On July 6, 1988, as part of routine maintenance, technicians removed and checked safety valves which were essential in preventing dangerous build-up of liquid gas. There were 100 identical safety valves which were checked. Unfortunately, the technicians made a mistake and forgot to replace one of them. At 10 PM that same night, a technician pressed a start button for the liquid gas pumps and the world’s most expensive oil rig accident was set in motion.

Within 2 hours, the 300 foot platform was engulfed in flames. It eventually collapsed, killing 167 workers and resulting in $3.4 Billion in damages.

3. Prestige Oil Spill – $12 Billion

On November 13, 2002, the Prestige oil tanker was carrying 77,000 tons of heavy fuel oil when one of its twelve tanks burst during a storm off Galicia, Spain. Fearing that the ship would sink, the captain called for help from Spanish rescue workers, expecting them to take the ship into harbour. However, pressure from local authorities forced the captain to steer the ship away from the coast. The captain tried to get help from the French and Portuguese authorities, but they too ordered the ship away from their shores. The storm eventually took its toll on the ship resulting in the tanker splitting in half and releasing 20 million gallons oil into the sea.

According to a report by the Pontevedra Economist Board, the total cleanup cost $12 billion.

2. World Trade Center (terrorist attacks), Sept. 11, 2001 – $39 billion*

With images of burning towers seared into our collective memory, the 9/11 attacks need no introduction. Although not typically thought of as a ‘fire,’ the 9/11 attacks resulted in the most costly blaze in our country’s history. What’s more, 9/11 was also one of the most expensive catastrophic events of any kind: only hurricanes Katrina and Andrew were more financially devastating.

1. Chernobyl $200 Billion

On April 26, 1986, the world witnessed the costliest accident in history. The Chernobyl disaster has been called the biggest socio-economic catastrophe in peacetime history. 50% of the area of Ukraine is in some way contaminated. Over 200,000 people had to be evacuated and resettled while 1.7 million people were directly affected by the disaster. The death toll attributed to Chernobyl, including people who died from cancer years later, is estimated at 125,000. The total costs including cleanup, resettlement, and compensation to victims has been estimated to be roughly $200 Billion. The cost of a new steel shelter for the Chernobyl nuclear plant will cost $2 billion alone. The accident was officially attributed to power plant operators who violated plant procedures and were ignorant of the safety requirements needed.

*Loss figures are from the National Fire Protection Association

Identify high priority off shore targets in the following countries:

France, UK, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Spain

Focused targets:

  • Industrial/petro/gas/energy installations (on shore/off shore)

  • Crude oil tankers/LNG carriers close to coasts or close to off shore oil installations.

Choose targets wisely and ensure that the secondary effects will have devastating effects.

A one man cell will have limited capabilities. However, providing a truck/boat loaded with explosives is within the capabilities of any single individual. It might take 1-2 years to safely acquire (without causing suspicion) the materials needed for this bomb but the resource vs. effect ratio is magnificent. In theory a 50 000 Euro operation has the potential to cause economical losses for to our enemy in the range 1-3 billion Euro.

Also, keep in mind that tankers carrying crude oil are sectioned (they might not sink if only one section is compromised) so it is essential to hit a cross section (two sections minimum) during a blast (or to ensure that you have enough load). This can f example be achieved by using a fishing boat loaded with explosives. Study the different oil platforms. Know that the crude oil and/or liquid gas is always stored in the hollow foundations/pillars of the platform (the 1-4 supporting blocks). Know that according to EU regulatives all oil platforms have mandatory emergency rescue ships within a certain radius for the purpose of rescuing personnel in case of disaster so the civilian casualties will be minimal.

Also, there is usually barracks on shore housing military units responsible for maritime counterrerrorism in case of terror attacks. These professional military personnel have high speed boats and in some cases helicopters available in case of potential hi-jacking scenarios (they often train for platform raids). However, they will not be able to prevent an attack if you use the following guidelines:

  1. Know the area, onshore and offshore. Study naval maps, google satellite maps (through safe browsing ofc).

  1. Acquire a verifiable front or at least an alibi to have a boat in the vicinity.

  1. Consider serving on a local fishing boat in the area prior to operation. Learn whatever skills you need to complete your mission. Acquire contacts within the local fishing community and establish solid alibis for your undercover/acquisition period.

  1. Make accurate estimations/research of military/coast guard response times, location of nearby bases. Do they have access to nearby fighter jets/helicopters? Are the helicopters armed with rockets/missiles/machine guns or not? The restricted parameter surrounding offshore rigs are usually no more than 500 metres so a loaded fishing vessel should have no trouble reaching the rig before military personnel has any chance to respond. The rig personnel will call it in when you are fastening the load (boat) to one of the pillars. Escape using a jetski or other mini vessel.

Estimated time needed for planning/preparation for operation: 1-3 years.

Damage potential for single cell ,Justiciar Knight, with a budget of 30 000-100 000 Euro:

Successful attack on oil platform resulting in the collapse of 2 out of 4 foundational blocks; the platform will collapse and possibly sink.

Estimated primary and secondary damage (due to massive oil spills):

Total damage: 2 – 40 billion Euro in total losses + massive shock effect which will temporarily destabilise the global crude prize and stock indexes (particularly on a national level).

Overview of a European offshore oil/gas rigs, refineries etc.

See field overview (2008):

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Fergus_Gas_Plant

NOTE: It is essential to ensure that the field is still operational and that it is not close to depletion.

There are Norwegian, British and Danish sectors of the North Sea and all countries have several platforms located over a large area.

United Kingdom production of oil and gas

All BP fields in British territory are operated from their office in Dyce, Aberdeen. This includes some fields not strictly in the North Sea itself. Fields in the Norwegian sector are operated from Stavanger.

Onshore:

  • Wytch farm in Dorset

Southern North Sea:

  • Amethyst gas field

  • Cleeton gas field

  • Ravenspurn gas field

  • West sole gas field

Central North Sea:

  • Andrew oil field

  • Cyrus oil field

ETAP complex

  • Marnock

  • Mungo

  • Monan

  • Machar

  • Mirren

  • Madoes

  • Erskine gas field

  • Everest gas field

  • Harding oil field

  • Lomond gas field

  • Miller oil field

Northern North Sea:

  • Bruce oil field

  • Magnus oil field

West of Shetlands:

  • Clair oil field

  • Foinaven oil field

  • Schiehallion oil field

Norwegian production of oil and gas

  • Hod oil field

  • Tambar oil field

  • Ula oil field

  • Valhall oil field

Other Norwegian fields:

  • Ekofisk

  • Troll oil field

  • Statfjord oil field

  • Gullfaks oil field

  • Oseberg oil field

  • Snorre oil field

  • Sleipner gas field

  • Heimdal gas field

French production of oil and gas

About 1.2 Mt (24,000 bbl/d) of oil and natural gas liquids are produced annually in France. This production is extracted from several dozen small fields located in the Paris Basin and the Aquitaine Basin.
Marketed gas production (1.1 billion cu.m per year, or 100 Mcftd) comes almost entirely from Aquitaine, with Lacq field deep pool accounting for about 75% of overall production.
Although France’s oil and gas production covers only a tiny part of domestic demand, it is nevertheless a source of economic value, as attested by the fact that some ten companies work in the two main basins. With oil prices at their current high level, this production is profitable, and would remain so even with considerably lower prices.

How to access to technical data on oil and gas exploration and production?

Much of the data is stored by the Office of Oil & Gas Exploration and Production (BEPH) and is easily accessible.

– BEPH publications give detailed information on oil and gas upstream activity in France.

– BEPH archives contain a virtually complete collection of documents related to oil wells drilled in France (almost 6000 wells). BEPH can also help companies to retrieve old geophysical data. Much of this data is easily available to the public at reasonable cost. This is particularly the case for well data.

– IFP (French Petroleum Institute) has published regional studies on the petroleum geology and prospectivity of France’s sedimentary basins.

German production of oil and gas

Germany produced 170,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) of oil in 2005, of which 67,000 bbl/d (39 percent) was crude oil.

Germany had 2007 natural gas production of 14.3 billion cubic metres and natural gas consumption of 82.74 billion cubic metres.

Due to its central location in Europe, Germany is a major natural gas pipeline transit hub for imports from Russia and the North Sea. The 440-mile Minveraloelverbungleitung (MVL) connects the cities of Rostock, Schwedt, and Spergau in eastern Germany. According to the 2008 BP Statistical Energy Survey, Germany had a 2007 refinery capacity of 2390.38 thousand barrels a day.

Companies and Organisations linked to Oil and Gas in Germany

http://www.mbendi.com/indy/oilg/eu/de/p0005.htm#Directories

Swedish production of oil and gas

According to the 2008 BP Statistical Energy Survey, Sweden had a 2007 refinery capacity of 421.72 thousand barrels a day.

Total oil production based on country, 2008 (Thousand Barrels Per Day):

Austria

24 847

Belgium

11 224

Denmark

288 848

Finland

9 789

France

70 801

Germany

150 798

Greece

4 891

Italy

162 201

Netherlands

72 093

Norway

2 465 955

Portugal

7 861

Spain

28 128

Sweden

3 572

Switzerland

3 244

UK

1 583 868

Dry Natural Gas Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

Austria

54

Denmark

356

France

32

Germany

578

Ireland

15

Italy

327

Netherlands

2 991

Norway

3 503

UK

2 469

Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids (Thousand Barrels Per Day)

Netherlands

9 984

Norway

274 746

UK

137 342

Total Petroleum Stocks, End of Period (Millions Barrels)

Austria

23

Belgium

35

Denmark

23

Finland

31

France

179

Germany

277

Greece

40

Ireland

11

Italy

128

Luxembourg

1

Netherlands

131

Norway

30

Portugal

25

Spain

138

Sweden

37

Switzerland

36

UK

99

Overview of W. European refineries

Refined petroleum products

  • Motor gasoline

  • Jet fuel

  • Kerosene

  • Distillate fuel oil

  • Residual fuel oil

  • Liquified petroleum gases

Austria

Schwechat Refinery, OMV, 175 000 bpd

Belgium

Total Antwerp Refinery, (Total), 352 000 bpd

Exxon Mobil Antwerp Refinery, (ExxonMobil), 333 000 bpd

Antwerp N.V. Refinery, (Petroplus), 115 000 bpd

BRC Antwerp (Petroplus), 110 000 bpd

Denmark

Kalundborg Refinery, (Statoil), 110 000 bpd

Fredericia Refinery, (Royal Dutch Shell), 68 000 bpd

Finland

Porvoo Refinery, (Neste Oil Oyj), 160 000 bpd

Naantali Refinery, (Neste Oil Oyj), 40 000 bpd

France

Gonfreville l’Orcher Refinery, (Total), 343 000 bpd

Provence Refinery, (Total), 155 000 bpd

Flandres Refinery, (Total), 160 000 bpd

Donges Refinery, (Total), 231 000 bpd

Feyzin Refinery, (Total), 119 000 bpd

Grandpuits Refinery, (Total), 99 000 bpd

Port Jerome Gravenchon Refinery, (ExxonMobil), 270 000 bpd

Fos sur Mer Refinery, (ExxonMobil), 140 000 bpd

Reichstett Refinery, (Petroplus), 77 000 bpd

Petit Couronne Refinery, (Petroplus), 142 000 bpd

Berre L’Etang Refinery, (Royal Dutch Shell), 80 000 bpd

Lavera Marseilles Refinery, (Ineos), 220 000 bpd

Fort de France Refinery, (Total), 00,000 bpd Partial List

Germany

Schwedt Refinery (PCK Raffinerie(Shell/PDVSA/BP/AET), 210 000 bpd

Ingolstadt Refinery (Bayernoil(OMV/Agip/PDVSA/BP)), 262 000 bpd

Ingolstadt Refinery (Petroplus) 110 000 bpd

Ruhr Oel Refinery (PDVSA/BP), 246 000 bpd

Buna SOW Leuna Refinery (Total), 222 000 bpd

Wilhelmshaven Refinery (ConocoPhillips), 220 000 bpd

Rheinland Werk Godorf Cologne Refinery (Royal Dutch Shell), 162 000 bpd

Miro Karlsruhe Refinery (MiRo(Shell/ExxonMobil/PDVSA/BP/Conoco)) 285 000 bpd

Burghausen Refinery (OMV) 70 000 bpd

Mitteldeutschland Spergau Refinery (Total) 227 000 bpd

Emsland Lingen Refinery (BP) 80 000 bpd

Elbe Mineralölwerke Hamburg-Harburg Refinery (Royal Dutch Shell)

Erdölwerk Holstein Heide Refinery (Royal Dutch Shell)

Hamburg (Holburn) Refinery (Tamoil) 105 000 bpd

Greece

Aspropyrgos Refinery, (Hellenic Petroleum), 135 000 bpd

Elefsina Refinery, (Hellenic Petroleum), 100 000 bpd

Thessaloniki Refinery, (Hellenic Petroleum), 66 500 bpd

Corinth Refinery, (Motor Oil Hellas), 100 000 bpd

Ireland

Whitegate Refinery, (ConocoPhillips), 71 000 bpd

Italy

Sarpom Trecate, Novara Refinery, (ExxonMobil 74.1%/ERG 25.9%), 200 000 bpd

Esso Augusta Refinery, (ExxonMobil), 190 000 bpd *

Sarroch Refinery, (Saras SPA), 300 000 bpd

Rome Refinery, (Total 77.5%/ERG 22.5%), 90 000 bpd

Falconara Marittima Ancona Refinery, (APIOIL), 85 000 bpd

Mantova Refinery, (IESItaliana), 55 000 bpd

Impianti Sud Refinery, (ISAB/ERG), 214 000 bpd

Impianti Nord Refinery, (ISAB/ERG), 160 000 bpd

Milazzo Refinery, (ENI/KNPC) 80 000 bpd

Sannazzaro de Burgondi Refinery, (ENI) 160 000 bpd

Gela Refinery, (ENI) 100 000 bpd

Taranto Refinery, (ENI) 90 000 bpd

Leghorn Livorno Refinery, (ENI) 84 000 bpd

Porto Marghera Venice Refinery, (ENI) 70 000 bpd

Cremona Refiney, (Tamoil) 80 000 bpd

Iplom [1] Busalla, Genoa

Norway

Slagen Refinery, (ExxonMobil), 110 000 bpd

Mongstad Refinery, (Statoil), 200 000 bpd

Portugal

Porto Refinery, (Galp Energia), 100 000 bpd

Sines Refinery, (Galp Energia), 200 000 bpd

Spain

Bilbao Refinery, (Petronor), 220 000 bpd

Puertollano Refinery, (Repsol YPF), 140 000 bpd

Tarragona Refinery, (Repsol YPF), 160 000 bpd

La Coruna Refinery, (Repsol YPF), 120 000 bpd

Cartagena Refinery, (Repsol YPF), 100 000 bpd

Tenerife Refinery, (CEPSA), 90 000 bpd

Palos de la Frontera Refinery, (CEPSA), 100 000 bpd

Gibraltar Refinery, (CEPSA), 240 000 bpd

Castellon Refinery, (BP), 100 000 bpd

Sweden

Nynäshamn Refinery (Nynäs Petroleum), 90 000 bpd

Preemraff Göteborg Refinery (Preem), 90 000 bpd

Preemraff Lysekil Refinery (Preem), 220 000 bpd

Shell Göteborg Refinery, (Royal Dutch Shell), 70 000 bpd

Switzerland

Cressier Refinery, (Petroplus), 68 000 bpd

Collombery-Muraz Refinery, (Tamoil), 45 000 bpd

The Netherlands

Shell Pernis Refinery, (Royal Dutch Shell), 416 000 bpd

Botlek Refinery (ExxonMobil) Rotterdam 195 000 bpd)

Vlissingen Refinery (Total/Lukoil) 149 000 bpd

BP Refinery Rotterdam (BP) 400 000 bpd)

Kuwait Petroleum Europoort Refinery (Kuwait Oil Company) 80 000 bpd

Koch HC Partnership Refinery (Koch) 80 000 bpd

United Kingdom

Lindsey Oil Refinery, (Total), 223 000 bpd

Milford Haven Refinery, (Total/Murco), 100 000 bpd

Pembroke Refinery, (Chevron), 210 000 bpd

Stanlow Refinery, (Royal Dutch Shell), 246 000 bpd

Port Clarence Teeside Refinery, (Petroplus), 117 000 bpd

Fawley Southampton Refinery, (ExxonMobil), 300 000 bpd

Humber Refinery, (ConocoPhillips), 221 000 bpd

Coryton Refinery, (Petroplus), 208 000 bpd

Grangemouth Refinery, (Ineos), 205 000 bpd

Refinery output of Jet Fuel based on country, 2008 (Thousand Barrels Per Day):

Austria

10 137

Belgium

40 434

Denmark

10 784

Finland

14 683

France

119 984

Germany

102 486

Greece

39 896

Italy

61 945

Netherlands

132 238

Norway

14 850

Portugal

15 929

Spain

59 189

Sweden

5 295

Switzerland

4 044

UK

141 107

Evaluation of targets – oil rigs vs. gas rigs and production facilities vs. refineries/storage

Despite of my limited experience with in depth petro structure analysis I will give my insight based on my general knowledge of the various potential targets.

Oil rigs vs. gas rigs

The stored liquefied natural gas in the pillars would cause a significantly larger secondary blast compared to that of crude oil. If my understanding is correct, a secondary gas blast (given that the pillar storage areas are full or semi full) would more or less completely destroy the structure and is likely to sink it. The devastation would be total. However, costs related to rig accidents are also related to secondary effects such as spills/pollution. Liquified gas is easily dispersed in water and would cause minimal pollution effects compared to that of crude oil which coagulates and poses a significant environmental threat (and hence results in extremely expensive cleanup operations). It is uncertain which target would result in the highest economical losses. If you have enough explosives (3000-6000 kg) I would go for the oil rig. However, if availability of explosives is scarce (1000-3000 kg) I would go for the gas rig.

Oil refineries vs. gas terminals/refineries

Refineries and gas terminals (linking sea based pipelines to land based pipelines) are all land based and are therefore less vulnerable to single source explosions.

The principle of availability of explosives can be applied here as well. Certain parts of gas terminals and refineries are significantly more vulnerable to explosions as the liquified gas will serve as a secondary blast catalyzator and enhance the devastation. However, it is essential that the correct part of the refining/terminal structure is targeted. The whole point is to trigger a secondary reaction or even a chain reaction resulting in maximum devastation and thus maximum direct and indirect economical losses.

Crude oil or gasoline/benzene storage facilities

Storage facilities are often intentionally placed at remote locations far away from valuable and expensive infrastructure. As such, targeting storage facilities will result in limited direct and indirect losses.

Using LNG vessels (liquified natural gas tanker ships and tanker trucks) as weapons

LNG vessels are considered significantly more potent as weapons compared to benzene/gasoline vessels.

LNG has a significant blast effect while the effect of benzene/gasoline is usually limited to an incinerating effect.

The problems however is that the hijacking of LNG tankers (for the purpose of detonating them close to rigs or priority coastal structures will be difficult due to the maritime anti-terror forces who have trained specifically for such scenarios and usually is within a 20 minute radius.

Conclusions

Such devastating sabotage attacks, which have the potential to cripple a countries economy, should not be employed by resistance fighters in countries where there are realistic possibilities for a democratical regime shift or where the people have not undergone two decades of severe mental conditioning (brainwashing) and should therefore be limited to Western Europepan countries.

These types of economically devastating operations should be employed in countries beyond hope of saving through democratical means (due to decades of severe ideological brainwashing) such as:

Germany, France, UK, Sweden, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria etc.

3.49 Buying the required lab equipment before the manufacture or preparation of explosives/chemical-biological compounds

I’ve reviewed more than 100 instructions/guides on how to create various explosive devices and/or compounds. However; I’ve never seen a relevant lab-equipment guide which explains what is required and what it is used for when manufacturing given explosives. I therefore decided to include most of the information you need to know in this compendium:

The basics – Chemistry knowledge required

Despite what others might say; you don’t need any formal training in order to manufacture explosives. I have studied hundreds of various guides, recipes and instructions and can honestly say that it is a relatively safe venture as long as you take the necessary precautions and avoid the most volatile explosives. The competence required really depends on which compound you are working with. Certain manufacturing techniques require a simple distillation process while others require a fractional distillation. You may need to purify substances through a process called crystallization. You don’t really need a bachelor or master degree to learn what you need to create explosives. As long as you are extremely careful and take the required precautions, there is a 90-95% chance you will succeed without any accidents. And if there are any accidents, the compound doze you are working with is likely to be small enough for you to get out of the situation without serious injuries.

It should be noted, though, that 30% of the registered explosions in the US are accidents. And according the Marxist terrorist and mass-murderer Che Guevara; half of the people he sent to manufacture explosives blew themselves up (probably due to them using lacking instructions, ignoring precautions and using open flames.

Required laboratory equipment

You can probably survive using kitchen ware but considering the low cost of laboratory glass ware, I really recommend investing in the following items. The primary reason is because laboratory grade glassware is specifically designed for heating, while kitchen glass ware may break if heated directly on a hot plate with potentially fatal consequences. DO NOT under any circumstances use an open flame heater. Always use an electrical heater, preferably a hot plate stirrer. A majority of accidents relating to explosives involves open flames or individuals dropping explosive materials on the floor so be careful.

Safety equipment recommended:

  • Bucket of cold water: 5 € (any kitchen store)

  • Fire extinguisher: 100 € (various stores)

  • Hazmat suit: F example: Lakeland DuPont HazMat Suit Tychem: 11-50 USD (Ebay). A hazmat suit with boots and hood isn’t necessarily needed for making explosives. it is however needed for handling pure nicotine and ricin. considering how inexpensive it is, you might as well use one while creating explosives.

  • 3M 6800 full face respirator with appropriate filters (choose Organic Vapor/Organic Vapor-Acid/Organic Vapor-Acid-Gas filters) depending on the chemicals you will be working with. You can buy this facemask with filters from Ebay for as low as 100 USD.

Laboratory safety:

Obviously, we are able to follow some but not all of the following guidelines due to our limited resources:

Hardware, regulators, glassware, solvents, dry chemicals, acids, etc., stored in the laboratory must be isolated from each other in separate cooling bath to prevent breakage and to avoid other undesirable interactions.

Electrical equipment including varices, stirrers, vacuum pumps, etc., must not be powered by extension cords or frayed line cords. Grounded plugs must be used without exception; existing ungrounded plugs must be changed immediately (this will be too costly to avoid, shouldn’t be a problem with good ventilation).

Carefully check glass vessels for star cracks, scratches or etching marks before each use. Cracks can increase the likelihood of breakage or may allow chemicals to leak into the vessel.

Seal glass centrifuge tubes with rubber stoppers clamped in place. Wrap the vessel with friction tape and shield with a metal screen. Alternatively, wrap with friction tape and surround the vessel with multiple layers of loose cloth, then clamp behind a safety shield.

Glass tubes with high-pressure sealers should be no more than 3/4 full.

Sealed bottles and tubes of flammable materials should be wrapped in cloth, placed behind a safety shield, then cooled slowly, first with an ice bath, then with dry ice.

Friction tape (electrical tape): The rubber based adhesive makes it an electrical insulator and provides a degree of protection from liquids and corrosion. In the past, friction tape was widely used by electricians, but PVC electrical tape has replaced it in most applications today.

When working with sensitive electrical components or volatile materials (such as papers/powders/flammable liquids) sparks and electrical discharge can cause catastrophic failure in sensitive electrical components and ignite volatile substances. Take steps to eliminate them: How to prevent static electricity: Hair, clothes and shoes are well known producers of static electricity. Ground the static by touching a grounded appliance, wiring a ground circuit, or by applying a neutralizing charge. Static accumulates in areas where the charge cannot escape.

Here are some methods to eliminate static electricity and/or buildup:

  • Wire work surfaces to grounding points. Resistive "Touch Me First" grounding pads let users drain off any static charge they’ve accumulated without causing a spark or a shock. Wear static control wristbands, which are wired to grounding points (Do NOT wear them when working on CRT [Cathode Ray Tube] televisions or computer monitors. More than a few people have been killed when the strap touched a main capacitor).

  • If nothing else is available, touch a grounded metal object once in a while to remove any charge from your body. Touching a water tap works extremely well. (as does touching a corner of a wall where there is metal stripping under the plaster) <- These moulding strips are not always grounded!

  • Professional devices are available that control static electricity by use of alpha-emitting devices containing Polonium.

Sparks from electrical equipment can serve as an ignition source for flammable or explosive vapors or combustible materials. Ensure that you have acceptable ventilation to prevent “explosive fume” buildup near powered electrical equipment.

All electrical cords should have sufficient insulation to prevent direct contact with wires. In a laboratory, it is particularly important to check all cords before each use, since corrosive chemicals or solvents may erode the insulation.

Damaged cords should be repaired or taken out of service immediately, especially in wet environments such as cold rooms and near water baths.

When it is necessary to handle equipment that is plugged in, be sure hands are dry and, when possible, wear nonconductive gloves and shoes with insulated soles.

If it is safe to do so, work with only one hand, keeping the other hand at your side or in your pocket, away from all conductive material. This precaution reduces the likelihood of accidents that result in current passing through the chest cavity.

Minimize the use of electrical equipment in cold rooms or other areas where condensation is likely.

If water or a chemical is spilled onto equipment, shut off power at the main switch or circuit breaker and unplug the equipment.

Grounding

Plug only equipment with three-prong plugs should be used in the laboratory. The third prong provides a path to ground for internal electrical short circuits, thereby protecting the user from a potential electrical shock.

Circuit Protection Devices

Circuit protection devices are designed to automatically limit or shut off the flow of electricity in the event of a ground-fault, overload or short circuit in the wiring system. Ground-fault circuit interrupters, circuit breakers and fuses are three well-known examples of such devices.

Fuses and circuit breakers prevent over-heating of wires and components that might otherwise create fire hazards. They disconnect the circuit when it becomes overloaded. This overload protection is very useful for equipment that is left on for extended periods of time, such as stirrers, vacuum pumps, drying ovens, Variacs and other electrical equipment.

The ground-fault circuit interrupter, or GFCI, is designed to shutoff electric power if a ground fault is detected, protecting the user from a potential electrical shock. The GFCI is particularly useful near sinks and wet locations. Since GFCIs can cause equipment to shutdown unexpectedly, they may not be appropriate for certain apparatus. Portable GFCI adapters (available in most safety supply catalogs) may be used with a non-GFCI outlet.

Electrical equipment required:

  • Freezer: 50-100 € (second hand item, don’t put chemicals in your food freezer, to avoid contaminating your food, you need a separate one). Most freezers are able to go as low as -30 Celsius.

  • Refrigerator: 50-100 € (second hand item, don’t put chemicals in your food refrigerator, you need a separate one)

  • Hot Plate Stirrer: 200 € (second hand or new item). I would really recommend investing in a hot plate stirrer. It’s a magnetic stirrer with adjustable stirring speed and adjustable heating so that you may heat up certain compounds (in beakers or conical flasks) without the dreadful task of stirring for 1-2 hours straight. Check Ebay and choose a Chinese supplier. I got mine for 200 Euro, shipping included (found the supplier on Ebay). European versions cost 500-1000 € in comparison.

Renting a lab

Many individuals make the mistake of using their urban apartment as a lab. Firstly; if anyone (neighbours, friends, family) sees you wearing a respirator face mask/hazmat suit they will notify the system protectors. If they accidentally find any of your equipment they may notify the system protectors. If anyone smells chemical odors in your block they will also notify the system protectors. Don’t be an idiot and take unnecessary risks. Rent a small cottage/farm in an isolated place. If you can’t afford to, then you shouldn’t be working with explosives anyway and should consider limiting your operation to one which only requires guns.

  • Rent a cottage in the rural parts of your country for this purpose. The cottage needs to have electricity and running water. cost: 100-500 € per month. You probably need the place for at least 3 but up to 6 months depending on the quantity of explosives you intend to manufacture.

  • Camouflaging your lab: invest in “fog stickers” to temporarily put on all windows, or use curtains. You may have to open 1-2 windows to ensure proper ventilation so make sure no one can look directly in by placing panels or something else to cover the lines of sight. cost: 20-50 €.

Glass ware and other basic lab equipment

1 x Funnel, glass 70 mm: 5 €

1 x Funnel, glass 50 mm: 4 €

4 x Funnel, plastic 100 mm: 8 € (purification through coffee filter x 4)

1 x Trakt i plast PP 45 mm: 2 €

1 x Thermometer -40-+110: 4 € (for oven)

2 x Thermometer -10-+110: 4 € (20 cm long glass variant)

1 x Graduated Cylinder 500 ml: 18 € (for measuring liquids)

1 x Crystallization cup 140-400 mm: 14-50 (a lasagna glass dish is a cheaper alt)

2 x Glass Beaker 2000 ml: 47 €

2 x Glass Beaker 1000 ml: 27 €

4 x Glass Beaker 600 ml: 24 €

2 x Glass Beaker 250 ml: 12 €

1 x Beakertongs: 7 (tongs to grab boiling hot beakers)

1 x Conical Flask (Erlenmeyer Flask) 1000 ml: 14 €

1 x Conical Flask 500 ml NN (narrow neck): 8 €

1 x Conical Flask 500 ml WN (wide neck): 8 €

6 x Pharmaceutical Bottle, glass (dark brown) 200 ml: 8 € (storage of detonator charge/primary expl. underwater)

2 x Pharmaceutical Bottle, glass (dark brown) 500 ml: 4 € (storage of primary expl)

3 x Pharmaceutical Bottle, glass (dark brown) 1000 ml: 7 € (storage of primary expl)

1 x pH-paper 0-14, 100 strips: 11 €

1 x Porcelain Dish 80 mm: 2 € (for boiling on top of conical flask)

2 x Glass rod, stirring rod 6 x 200 mm: 2 €

5 x Drop counter: 5 €

1 x Acid resistant gloves: 6 €

100 x Latex Gloves: 11 €

1 x Lab-apron: 9 €

1 x Mortar w. Pestle 100 mm: 11 €

2 x Pipette bottle, plastic 100 ml: 2 €

2 x Plastic box, storage, square 500 ml: 6 €

1 x Plastic box, storage, square 250 ml: 2 €

1 x Plastic box, storage, square 100 ml: 2 €

1 x Spoon with spatulas, 150 mm: 2 €

1 x Spatulas 21 cm: 049610 – 14 – 2 €

1 x Cleaning brush: 4 €

1 x Beaker brush 21 cm: 3 €

1 x Tube brush 400 mm: 5 €

2 x Plastic container 31 x 43 x 15: 19 € (for evaporation of liquids)

25 x Syringe and needle, 1 ml: 6 € (for injecting pure nicotine into hollow bullets)

100 x Filter paper 125-200 mm: 3 € (fits into large funnels)

1 x Single electrical cooking plate: 23 € (in case you need an extra)

Note: There was a minimum order of 10 for certain items from the supplier I selected. Therefore, I had to buy more glass beakers and conical flasks than needed. Still, I have only listed the required amount of equipment and not the surplus amount I bought. Conical flasks are often better than beakers due to the ease of using funnels etc. in them, + the liquid inside doesn’t evaporate as quickly due to the narrow neck of the conical flask.

End note: I tried to contact three international suppliers of second hand lab ware (one German, one British and one US) but they all advised me to just order from a national/local supplier, as glass ware is usually bought locally/nationally due to their relatively low cost. So just contact f example the local supplier in your country who supplies high schools and colleges/universities or alternative suppliers.

3.49 Manufacturing explosives – Recommended explosives

An explosive device is usually divided into 3 separate charges:

  1. Primary charge/detonator (Usually not more than 6-20 g)

  1. Secondary charge – booster charge (Usually not more than 50 g to 2 kg)

  1. Tertiary charge (the bulk of the explosives, 50-5000 kg)

The size of your primary and secondary charge relies on the quantity, quality and purity of your tertiary charge. I have concluded that the following explosives are the most suitable for my purpose (as of 2010) based on a variety of factors:

DDNP as detonator (primary charge)

Picric Acid as booster (secondary charge)

ANFO/or ANNM (tertiary charge)

I will try to point out some challenges and present advice regarding which compounds are still available to us as of 2010

How to locate bomb-making recipes, guides and other relevant instructions on the internet

Before starting your “explosives research phase” you must at least use services such as anonymizer.com which hides your IP. Anonymizer.com`s service offers you, as far as I know, a descent level of protection as of 2010. Try to avoid forums and sites that seems suspect in regards to surveillance. Try not to register your name etc. in order to get access to forums.

The first week of my “explosive research phase” I googled for 200 hours over the course of 2 weeks. I was worried that I had to use obscure search engines if google had banned many search phrases or sources, but to my surprise google seemed to be fully functional in this regard. There are a lot of various explosives forums around (f example: roguesci.org/theforum) which will discuss in depth concerning hundreds of different recipes and methods of manufacture explosives. There are hundreds of various books out there about this subject. However, most of them are quite difficult to locate unless you know the title of the book. I will provide a list of descent books you can locate:

List

Improvised Primary Explosives (PDF)

Revised Black Book – A Guide To Field-Manufactured Explosives – William Wallace

Home and Recreational Use of High Explosives – Ragnar Benson (PDF)

Igniter, High Temp, How to make it (PDF)

Ragnars Detonators (PDF)

ANNM (PDF)

Nitromethane explosives (PDF)

Nitromethane Liquid Explosive (PDF)

Mujahideen Explosives Handbook (PDF)

I also found two libraries on thepiratebay.org called:

Forbidden Knowledge” (15 books)

._3842828-How-to-Make-Acetone-Peroxide

._Disaster Preparation Survival

._Elements_of_military_science

._Explosives_Black_Book_Companion

._Guerrilla_s Arsenal

._Home_Workshop_Explosives_-_Uncle_Fester

._How to Start Train a Militia Unit

._IRA-Handbook

._Ragnar_Benson_-_Homemade_Detonators

._Synthesis II

._The Anarchists Cookbook

._The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives

._THE_PREPARATORY_MANUAL_OF_EXPLOSIVES

._THE-COMPLETE-KITCHEN-IMPROVISED-PLASTIC-EXPLOSIVES

._Uncle-Fester-Secrets-of-Methamphetamine Manufacture-7th-Edition

and another really large file containing more than 200 books and a ton of files:

Explosives Books Collection” (639 files)

You do not have to spend 2 weeks studying the above literature as I have included the most important information (providing you manage to acquire the materials).

Manufacturing explosives – worth it or not?

Everyone should be aware of the fact that the EUSSR intelligence agencies have successfully uncovered and apprehended 200-300 Jihadi cells on European soil since 9/11. 95%+ of them was in the process of creating explosives. Imagine if these individuals had ignored explosives altogether and instead focused on small arms operations. If they had, they would have successfully murdered more than 1000 Europeans by now. These were all Mujahedeen though with an apparently rigid mentality.

All Justiciar Knights must ask themselves; should I manufacture explosives or just stick to fire arms? This decision really boils down to what you expect to accomplish. A well planned assault with an assault rifle may kill 30 category B traitors, while an unsuccessful explosive manufacturing process might result in 1 dead Justiciar Knight and thus 0 traitor executions. Also, there is a 30% chance of being apprehended during an explosive manufacturing process (for a non-blacklisted person with no criminal record) which doubles for every person involved. For a blacklisted individual (blacklisted by the intelligence agency) there is less than 10% chance for success with the manufacture of explosives. If he includes 3 other blacklisted individuals this 10% chance is reduces to 3%.

So the question remains; is it really worth risking your life for a military operation with only 3% success rate? It is probably worth it if you have a realistic chance (50%+) of successfully creating a 500 kg truck bomb, which has the capability to destroy a medium or large building, thus instantly executing 100-300 category A, B and C traitors. However, if your bomb is only likely to have the capacity to kill 1-15 individuals, you are probably better off focusing on perfecting a small arms operation. Because a small arms operation should result in 10-30 executions for single cell operations, 20-60 executions for duo cell and 30-90 executions for triple cell. So before you decide whether you want to incorporate an explosive component to your operation; be pragmatic and always choose a realistic option which reflects your capabilities. Never choose operations which has a lower than 50% success rate, unless the payoff is exceptionally high. Be ambitious but at the same time; don’t be naive. The manufacturing of explosives is not for anyone and should NOT be the goal for everyone. A successful mission MUST be the ultimate goal for any and all Justiciar Knights, and for the most part; this will include limiting your operation to small arms shock attacks of undefended concentrations of category A, B and C traitors.

Primary charge/detonator (Usually not more than 6-20 g)

Blasting cap/Primary Explosives

A blasting cap is a small sensitive primary explosive device generally used to detonate a larger, more powerful and less sensitive secondary explosive such as TNT, dynamite or plastic explosive.

  1. Non electric caps

  2. Electric caps

  3. Fuse caps

Most blasting caps contain what is called a primary explosive. A blasting cap may also contain a booster, another explosive to make the cap more powerful, and thus more reliable for detonating secondary stabile explosives.

Primary explosives can detonate by the action of a relatively weak mechanical shock or by a spark; if used in the form of blasting caps, they initiate the booster which then initiates the main explosive. They are also filled in percussion caps mixed with friction agents and other components. An initiating explosive must be highly brisant and must have a high triggering velocity. The most important/popular primary explosives are Mercury Fulminate, DDNP (diazodinitrophenol), Acetone Peroxide (AP), HMTD (Hexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine), PETN (too difficult to produce), Lead Azide, Lead Trinitroresorcinate, Silver Azide, and Tetrazene.

Description of the four most popular primary explosives:

Acetone Peroxide

Stability:EXTREMELY unstable

Risk: Unacceptable (30%+ chance of blowing yourself up)

Easy to manufacture: relatively easy

Very popular among Jihadi terrorists and probably the easiest compound to manufacture (although Hydrogen Peroxide is increasingly harder to acquire due to EU anti-terror laws). I only found one single UK supplier on Ebay for the 30% liquid. However, do not try to create this as it is EXTREMELY unstable (sensitive to friction and shock). It is a 40% probability that you will end up blowing yourself up.

Mercury Fulminate

Stability:VERY unstable

Risk: Somewhat acceptable (15%+ chance of blowing yourself up)

Easy to manufacture: relatively easy

Very popular among recreational users. This compound is noticeably more stable than AP but still caries VERY HIGH risk as it is unstable and sensitive to friction, shock and even to static electricity. 5 times more safe than AP.

DDNP (Diazodinitrophenol)

Stability:unstable (But significantly more stable than AP and considerably more stable than MF)

Risk: Somewhat acceptable (less than 5-10%+ chance of blowing yourself up)

Easy to manufacture: moderately easy

When creating a blasting cap it is recommended that you choose DDNP as it is significantly less sensitive than MF and AP, yet still sensitive enough to effectively initiate all boosters and many secondary explosives. It still carries HIGH risk as it is unstable and sensitive to friction, shock and to a degree static electricity. 10 times more safe than AP. The charge however must be a minimum of 6 g and confined in order to detonate properly.

If I had to choose a compound in which to produce I would select DDNP first, then either MF or HMTD.

HMTD (Hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine) – Not properly reviewed

Hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine, or H.M.T.D., is a primary explosive, very good for a home manufacturer due to the ingredients, which in Europe is very easy to find. It is a better initiator, and less sensitive, than Mercury Fulminate, and more storage stable than C.T.A.P. VoD is 5100 m/s at 1.10 g/cm3. Relative briscancy = 0.35.

Like all explosives, in particular organic peroxides, this should not be stored for extended periods of time. It gradually decomposes (although I have a very old sample which is still fine), and there have been some cases of spontaneous detonation. I think this is due to insufficient washing, however.

Not properly reviewed. My impression is that DDNP is a better option. You might want to choose HMTD if you are having problems acquiring the materials for DDNP.

The best and safest choice as of 2010 would be DDNP:

DDNP – General information

4,6-Dinitrobenzene-2-diazo-1-oxide,

Synonyms: DINOL, Diazodinitrophenol

FORMULA: C6H2N4O5

VoD: 4400 m/s @ 0.9 g/cc. 6600 m/s @ 1.5 g/cc. 6900 m/s @ 1.6 g/cc. 7000 m/s @ 1.63 g/cc.

EQUIVALENCE: # 8 cap = 0.7 g. # 6 cap = 0.5 g.

SENSITIVITY: Friction: less sensitive than mercury fulminate. Small quantities burn like guncotton. Will detonate in quantities larger than 6 g.

DRAWBACKS: Obscure chemicals needed.

COMPATIBILITY: Nearly all high explosives and metals.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Lead block expansion: 326 cc./10 grams

The recommended primary explosive is DDNP because it’s non toxic, easy to make and not too sensitive. The sensitivity of DDNP to friction is much less than that of mercury fulminate, but it is approximately that of lead azide. DDNP is used with other materials to form priming mixtures, particularly where a high sensitivity to flame or heat is desired. DDNP is often used as an initiating explosive in propellant primer devices and is a substitute for lead styphnate in what are termed "non-toxic" (lead free) priming explosive compositions.

DDNP (diazodinitrophenol) is a primary high explosive. It is extensively used in commercial blasting caps that are initiated by black powder safety fuse. It is superior to mercury fulminate in stability but is not as stable as lead azide.

DDNP does not detonate when unconfined, but when confined has a velocity of 6900 VOD. For an initiating explosive it is relatively insensitive to friction and impact, but still is powerfull when confined. DDNP has good properties of storage.

Important:

The diazodinitrophenol must be dried before it will explode. Drying will take 24 hours if done at room temperature, or in 2 hours if the crystals are placed in a beaker suspended in hot water. The diazodinitrophenol must be stored in a sealed glass container. Storing the explosive moist, about 25% water, will increase safety. Dry immediately before use.

DDNP safety

Do not store this material dry for long periods of time. For storage, store submerged in water-free kerosene in tightly sealed amber glass bottles away from light.

DDNP is desensitized by immersion in water.

It decomposes when exposed to direct sunlight and explodes violently when heated to 150 C. Detonates easily by sparks, fire, percussion or friction. It can be compressed substantially without detonation or decomposition and compressed samples can still be easily detonated. DDNP is less sensitive then mercury fulminate and has a greater detonating velocity.

It detonates when struck a sharp blow but if it is ignited when it is unconfined, it burns with a quick flash, even in quantities of several grams. This burning produces little or no local shock and will not initiate the explosion of a high explosive.

Manufacturing method 1 – DDNP/Diazodinitrophenol

DDNP or dinol, which stands for Diazodinitrophenol, has a reputation of being one of the best primaries out there when it comes to performance. Its synthesis is often disregarded because few people have gotten it to work. It has a very high stability considering it’s a primary. The only downside to this is that some of the chemicals needed for the procedure are hard to find or must be synthesized. The synthesis actually has a lot of reactions going on throughout it. It is mainly two parts; preparation of sodium picramate, then diazotation of picramic acid. I have actually gotten this procedure to work, and I am satisfied with my product.

C6H3N3O7 + NaOH —> C6H2N3O7Na + H2O (Picric acid neutralized to sodium picrate)

S + NaOH —-> Na2Sx (Sodium Polysulfide)

C6H2N3O7Na + Reducing compound —-> C6H4N3O5Na (Sodium picrate reduced to sodium picramate)

C6H4N3O5Na + H2SO4 —-> C6H5N3O5 + NaHSO4 (Sodium picramate acidified into picramic acid)

C6H5N3O5 + HNO2 —-> C6H3N4O5 (picramic acid diazotized)

Materials

Equipment

Picric Acid

Sodium Hydroxide (compound which you will create from sub-materials)

Glass funnel

Sulfur 1000ml beaker

Sulfuric Acid ice bath and equipment

Sodium Nitrite – 200ml evaporating dish

Acetone (150 ml per batch, so 500-1000 ml should be enough), used to mix with semi pure DDNP, and then filter, and then evaporate in dish to create pure DDNP. 250ml beaker

  1. Into a 600ml beaker, pour 100mls of water and heat up to ~70-80C.

  1. Add 9 grams of finely powdered picric acid to this and swirl it a little bit. It will not all dissolve however, so don’t assume you’re getting anywhere by swirling it for 24 hours.

  1. Now add 1.5 grams of sodium hydroxide to this. Swirl this mixture around until everything inside dissolves. Yes it will all dissolve just keep swirling. The solution will turn to an orangish color. This is a sodium picrate solution. Keep this on low heat and add water as it evaporates.

  1. In another beaker, pour 300mls of water and 8.0 grams of sodium hydroxide. Bring the solution to a rolling boil.

  1. Measure out 7.5 grams of pure sulfur, and crush it finely. Sieve it into the boiling sodium hydroxide solution making sure to get as little sulfur on the sides of the beaker as possible. Let this boil for 60-120min (1 to 2 hours), adding water as necessary. After this amount of time, most if not all of the sulfur should be dissolved. if you sit and watch it the whole time, you will notice a color change from clear to green to blue, to puke green, to pea green, then to a very dark color and once all the sulfur dissolves it will be a very very dark red color. Set this on a towel or similar device and let it cool down until it stops boiling. The reason for the towel is so that it doesn’t come in direct contact with any room temperature (or colder) surface.

  1. Once it stopped boiling (but is still hot) add it to the sodium picrate solution in the other beaker, in 4 portions.

  1. Once all of it is added, place the beaker in a refrigerator (about 4C) until its cold. There should be a healthy amount of red crystals in the bottom of the beaker.

  1. Filter the whole solution into the 600ml beaker that was used in the last step. Discard the filtrate and clean that beaker out.

  1. Pour 300mls of water in it and bring it to a boil. Add the red crystals in the filter (and everything else) to the boiling water and boil it for 2-3 minutes. While it is still boiling clean out the other 600ml beaker which should be empty.

  1. Filter the boiling solution into the clean 600ml beaker. Discard the filter and its contents and let the filtrate cool to room temp. This is now a sodium picramate solution.

  1. When the sodium picramate solution is at room temp, drip concentrated sulfuric acid in there with stirring. Keep dripping it in there until it just barely tests acidic on litmus paper. This will take 1-2ml. You will also notice that the color has changed from a deep red color to a sort of rusty color. There is also a precipitate in the beaker (and a lot of it). This is picramic acid.

  1. Measure out 7.5 grams of sulfuric acid and add it to this beaker. Mix the beaker up, then pour it into a 1000ml beaker. Add another 100ml of water to this.

  1. Place this beaker in an ice bath and bring the temperature down below 5C.

  1. In another 600ml beaker, pour 250ml of water and add 5.4 grams of sodium nitrite. Swirl it until its dissolved.

  1. Now, slowly add this solution to the picramic acid solution in the 1000ml beaker, keeping the temperature below 5C. Be sure to stir almost constantly during this part. You can stop stirring if you’re not adding anything if you need a break though. Once all of it is added, continue stirring for a couple more minutes then remove it from the ice bath. Let it slowly warm up to room temperature. You will see a brown precipitate (the shade of brown varies sometimes).

  1. Once it is up to room temperature, filter the solution out. There is a lot of DDNP crystals in here, so use two different filter papers. Try to even the amounts of DDNP on each filter paper when filtering.

  1. Once all the crystals are filtered out, run 60ml of cold water through each filter to wash out some of the very soluble products. Remember, DDNP is slightly soluble in water so make sure it’s cold.

  1. Scrape the DDNP on the filter papers into a 250ml beaker. Add acetone to this, 100-150ml should be fine to dissolve all the DDNP. Swirl it around good to dissolve as much as possible. There will be a significant amount of impurities that are undissolved which should be yellow; the solution should be brown.

  1. Filter this solution out into a 200ml evaporating dish. Discard the filter and the contents of it. Place the 200ml evaporating dish on top of a 1000ml beaker with boiling water in the bottom of it. Keep boiling the water so that the steam boils away the acetone (do this outside or with good ventilation). Eventually you will be left with a brown crystal in your evaporating dish. This is pure DDNP.

DO NOT SCRAPE THIS STUFF OFF THE EVAP DISH. Get as much as you can of the loose crystal, but don’t scrape at the layer stuck to the evaporating dish because this compound is friction sensitive. The yield I achieved was 3.7 grams. This is a poor yield mainly because I lost a lot during purification because a filter paper ripped open (I know, I know; excuses excuses).

Manufacturing method 2 – DDNP/Diazodinitrophenol

Chemicals:

Sodium hydroxide

Picric acid

Sulfur

Sulfuric acid (conc.)

Potassium or sodium nitrite

Water

Materials:

4 x 500 ml glass beakers

2 x Glass stirring rod

Filter papers

Heating source

MANUFACTURE:

1. Mix in a beaker 90 ml warm water and 1.5 grams of sodium hydroxide until all

NaOH is dissolved.

2. Stir in carefully 9 grams of picric acid in the above solution. Name it solution 1.

3. In the second beaker fill 300 ml water. Stir in 7.5 g of Sulfur and 7.5 g of

Sodium Hydroxide/NaOH. Boil this solution over a heating source. After a few minutes of boiling, the solution turns red. Allow to cool. Name it solution 2.

4. Add solution 2, under stirring, in three portions to solution 1 and allow to cool.

5. Filter the solution through coffee filter. Small red crystals should form. Discard the liquid.

6. These red crystals are added to 180 ml of boiling water.

Filter hot. Discard the crystals collect in filter paper, and name the liquid solution 3.

7. Slowly and drop by drop add concentrated sulfuric acid to solution 3 until the solution turns orange-brown.

8. Add to the orange-brown solution 7.5 g of sulfuric acid.

9. In 2nd beaker dissolve 5.4 g of potassium or sodium nitrite in 240 ml of water. Name it solution 4.

10. Solution 4 is added in one portion to soln. 3 under well stirring.

11. Let mixture sit for ca 10 minutes. Filter the now brown solution (pure DDNP) through a paper. The crystals left are washed with 60 ml water. Let dry for 24 hours. DDNP is best stored with 25% water. Load moist in detonator.

Manufacturing method 3 – DDNP/Diazodinitrophenol

Picric acid 6 g

Sodium Hydroxide 6 g (Lye – caustic soda)

Sulfur 5 g

Sulfuric acid 120 ml

Sodium nitrite (not nitrate)

Distilled water

Boiling water

Distilled ice water

Diazodinitrophenol is a greenish yellow to a brown crystal and is superior to fulminate as a detonating agent. To make it:

  1. Dissolve 1 g of sodium hydroxide in 65 ml of distilled water

  1. Then add 6 g of picric acid to the lye solution.

  1. In another container put 10 ml of distilled water and add 5 g of Sulfur to the water.

  1. Now add 5 g of sodium hydroxide to the sulfur/water. Boil this mixture until it turns bright red. Let the solution cool off.

  1. Add the sulfur/lye to picric acid solution in four portions letting the picric solution cool down in between additions. Stir the solution while adding the sulfur/lye.

  1. Let the mixture cool off then filter out the red particles.

  1. Dissolve the red particles in 130 ml of boiling water. Filter the solution and discard any precipitate, save the solution.

  1. Add 80% sulfuric acid to the solution drop by drop until it turns an orangebrown color then add 15 ml more sulfuric acid. Let the solution cool down to room temperature.

  1. Dissolve 3.75 g of sodium nitrite (not nitrate) in 150 ml of distilled water.

  1. Add the nitrite solution to the orange-brown solution all at once while stirring. Let the solution stand for 10 – 15 mins. The solution should be a brown color.

  1. Filter out the particles of DDNP and wash them with 100 ml of distilled ice water. Store the DDNP under a small amount of water until use.

Manufacturing method 4 – DDNP/Diazodinitrophenol

Its preparation is very simple, needing only picramic acid, sodium or potassium nitrite, and some dilute hydrochloric or 85%+ sulfuric acid. Obtaining the picramic acid will be impossible for most, so I included how it can be prepared in the synthesis section.

Diazodinitrophenol is prepared by a diazotization reaction, this happens when an amine substituient, NH2, on an aromatic ring, loses its hydrogen atoms and forms a triple bond with another nitrogen atom.

  1. Place 120 mL of 5% hydrochloric acid in a 250-mL beaker

  1. Then immerse the beaker in a salt-ice bath. Place the ice bath on top of a magnetic stirrer and drop a spin bar in the beaker.

  1. Slowly add 10 g of picramic acid to the acid solution while stirring rapidly, monitor the temperature with a thermometer. Be sure there is no sudden rise in temperature. If you do not have a magnetic stirrer, use a stirring rod and stir like the wind.

  1. Dissolve 3.6 g of sodium nitrite in 10 mL of water.

  1. After the picramic acid has dissolved, add the sodium nitrite solution all at once and continue stirring for 20 minutes.

  1. Filter the solution to collect the dark brown crystals that should have formed and wash them with cold water. The diazodinitrophenol thus formed can be used as is, or it can be purified by dissolving in hot acetone then precipitated by adding a large volume of ice water while rapidly mixing the liquid. This treatment will convert the diazodinitrophenol into bright yellow crystals. You will need a graduated cylinder for measuring liquids.

Booster charge – secondary charge (Usually not more than 50 g to 2 kg based on size of tertiary charge)

Picric Acid

A booster containing 100-500 g of Picric Acid is used to amplify the Blasting Cap, which together will set of the 50 kg + tertiary explosive. Picric acid is also one of the components in DDNP so selecting PA as booster and DDNP as the blasting cap reduces the complexity of production and total variety of materials required. The booster is placed in a metal cylinder (coated with a layer of plastic on the inside) and the blasting cap. The blasting cap consists of a smaller metal cylinder (again coated with a layer of plastic on the inside) which is placed inside the larger booster cylinder. Ensure that the cylinder walls have a plastic layer/acid resistant epoxy to prevent the PA or the DDNP from coming in contact with metal.

I’ve added three separate descriptions of a PA production method based on Aspirin (and I’ve chosen not to merge the information) as insights from three sources will teach the reader alternative considerations and aspects of the production process.

Picric Acid (booster), 500 g made to 50 kg+ of secondary explosive

Form: colorless to yellow solid/crystal needles

Melting point: 122,5 C

Boiling point: >300 C (Explodes)

Solubility in water: 14.0 g/L

Insoluble in cold water

Sensibility: Impact: moderate, Friction moderate-low: water sens: moderate

VOD: 7350 M/S

Must be stored wet with at least 10-20% water

General information about Picric Acid

PA used to be the most common high explosive before TNT was commercialized and was used as the primary explosive for munitions during the First and Second World War.

Picric acid is considered in the same category as TNT, the only drawback of Picric acid is that it reacts with metals.

Picric Acid can be mixed with olive oil as a means of reducing sensitiveness.

These explosives are relatively insensitive and are used to strengthen the explosion of the detonator. These explosives are classified as a high explosive.

Additional production tips

Boiling sulfuric acid will concentrate it to above 90% which is more than adequate for making picric acid.

When washing, use only cold water (because it is soluble in hot water)

The next morning the picric acid will be found to have separated in crystals. These are transferred to a porcelain filter, washed with small portions of water until the washings are free from sulfate, and dried in the air.

The crude product, which is equal in quality to a good commercial sample, is purified by boiling it with water, in the proportion of 15 grams to the liter, filtering hot, and allowing to cool slowly. The heavy droplets of brown oil which dissolve only slowly during this boiling ought to be discarded. Pure picric acid crystallizes from water in pale yellow flat needles,

Common Questions and Answers

The only problem I had while making it was that when you dump the finished nitrated liquid into ice water to precipitate the picric acid, a lot of the picric dissolves in the water. Is there any way to get the dissolved picric out of the water? Ensure you have enough ice and add just a little at a time. Keep it cool or it will fail to precipitate properly.

Safety – Picric Acid:

CAUTION! THIS COMPOUND MAY EXPLODE INSTANTLY WHEN TOUCHED WITH METAL

Also, don’t inhale any of the fumes given off during the nitrate addition to the acid mix. Do all the heating and mixing outdoors or counter by having good ventilation in addition to wearing a gas mask (3M with acidic/vapor/organic filter).

It is best handled in a wet 10 percent distilled water form, as picric becomes very unstable when completely dry. This compound should never be put into direct contact with metal, since instantly on contact there is a formation of metal picric, which explodes spontaneously upon formation.

Any metal in contact with picric acid should be coated with an acid proof paint or an epoxy coat.

Modern safety precautions recommend storing picric acid wet. Dry picric acid is relatively sensitive to shock and friction, so laboratories that use it store it in bottles under a layer of water, rendering it safe. Glass or plastic bottles are required, as picric acid can easily form metal picrate salts that are even more sensitive and hazardous than the acid itself.

Safety glasses, adequate ventilation. If working with anything other than a solution or the wet solid full face protection is essential.

Maintain at least a 20% water content at all times. Never try to open a bottle of picric acid if crystals are visible at the rim of the bottle, even if the bottle contains water, since the friction when the cap is twisted may be sufficient to detonate the acid.

When the substance goes beyond a certain timeframe, it can become dangerous to transport so produce not longer than 2-4 weeks before use.

Unstable; may detonate if struck, heated or ground. Highly flammable if dry. May explode if dry – keep wet at all times. Keep water content above 20%. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, bases, most common metals, ammonia, strong reducing agents. Avoid shock, friction, heat. Compounds formed by reaction with metals are usually shock-sensitive explosives. The most serious hazard associated with this chemical is the risk of explosion, which is severe if the acid is dry. Nevertheless, it is at least 10-20 times as safe to handle (in regards to shock/friction, in dry form, compared to AP (A. Peroxide).

Shells which are to be loaded with these explosives are first plated on the inside with tin or painted with asphaltum varnish or Bakelite.

Always keep a bucket full of cold water close to production site in case everything goes wrong. Dump the compound in the bucket if you all else fail.

Manufacturing method 1 – Picric Acid/Trinitrophenol (from aspirin, Acetylsalicylic Acid)

Also called Picric Acid, TNP, Lyddite and Shimose. This explosive is slightly more powerful than TNT, and has a VoD of 7480 m/s at 1.76 g/cm3. Relative briscancy = 1.21

It can be used as-is, or to make the following explosives: Ammonium Picrate (Explosive D), DDNP and Lead Picrate.

It is relatively storage stable, but will form dangerously sensitive metal Picrates if it comes into contact with certain metals. To store it in absolute safety, make a saturated solution out of it in alcohol and store it in sealed glass containers. It can be stored indefinitely like this.

You will need:

96 aspirin tablets, each containing 300mg of aspirin,

120mL of 95% sulphuric acid,

60g of potassium nitrate,

Acetone,

Distilled water,

Some ice cubes (c. 10),

A pestle and mortar,

A gas or alcohol burner,

A 250mL conical flask,

A 1L container,

Two 250mL beakers,

A 500ml beaker,

A filter funnel,

A thermometer,

Filter papers,

A glass rod.

1) Place the aspirins in the pestle and mortar, and crush them. They don’t have to be fine, but the finer they are the better.

2) Heat 150mL of acetone (methylated spirits will work) in a 250mL beaker until it’s nearly boiling. Add the aspirin powder, and stir it with a glass rod until the grains have all disintegrated, leaving a small amount of white powder at the bottom of the alcohol.

3) Filter this liquid into the other 250mL beaker. Throw away the solid left on the filter paper.

4) Gently heat the filtrate to reduce its volume, until crystals begin to appear. Then let it cool and evapourate over night in a warm place.

5) Scrape up the crystals, and store them.

6) Heat the sulphuric acid to 65*C in a 250ml flask, and while it’s heating up gradually stir in the purified aspirin using the thermometer.

7) When all of the aspirin has been added, let the solution cool to 50*C.

8) Add the potassium nitrate constantly, at a rate of about 1 to 2 grams every minute, while stirring rapidly. The temperature should be kept between about 60*C and 70*C. When I do this, I get very little nitrogen dioxide formed, just nitric acid vapours and CO2, formed by decarboxylation. Others claim to have clouds of nitrogen dioxide formed. This is because they add the potassium nitrate too fast, and it wastes the potassium nitrate.

9) When all of the potassium nitrate has been added, let the solution cool to roon temperature, and dump it into 300mL of distilled water, with the ice cubes, in a 1L container. This will precipitate out the Trinitrophenol as light canary yellow crystals.

10) Filter the liquid once most of the ice has melted, or remove the ice when the temperature is below 5*C, and discard of the liquid carefully as it is toxic and corrosive. You can concentrate it and extract slightly more Trinitrophenol, but it isn’t really worth it..

11) Take the crystals formed, and add them to 100mL of boiling water in a 500mL beaker. Stir, and add more water until all the crystals have dissolved.

12) Cool the solution in the fridge, and filter out the purified crystals.

13) Leave them spread out to dry.

Manufacturing method 2 – Picric Acid/Trinitrophenol (from aspirin, Acetylsalicylic Acid)

How to produce picric acid (2,4,6- trinitrophenol) at home from common ingedients.

This method is based on the descriptions in "Improvised Kitchen Plastic Explosives II" by Tim Lewis using acetylsalicylic acid, sulfuric acid and either potassium or sodium nitrate.

The ratios given there are 40g acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), 150ml sulfuric acid and 77g potassium or 58g sodium nitrate = 1 : 3,75 : 1,9 – acetylsalicylic acid : sulfuric acid : potassium nitrate.

First time I attempted to produce PA (picric acid) I used the ratios mentioned in "Kitchen Improvised Blasting Caps" by Tim Lewis and Mega’s site. They suggest to use 100 crushed aspirin tablets/ 37,5g (very vague but some people mentioned the acetylsalicylic acid content to be 0,375g per tablet – maybe standard in the US?), 700ml sulfuric acid (!) and 75g of either potassium or sodium nitrate. I think this is too much sulfuric acid: when I poured the nitrated mix in the crushed ice & water it warmed so much all the ice melted and the shit was still warm. The yield was ca. 8g from 30g acetylsalicylic acid 😦 acetylsalicylic acid purification

1. 120 aspirin tablets each containing 500mg acetylsalicylic acid and 50mg starch & microcristalline cellulose was crushed to powder.

2. This powder was dumped in 600ml of 60 °C ethanol (denaturated brand with 1% butanone) causing the acetylsalicylic acid to dissolve.

3. The hot alcohol/acetylsalicylic acid solution was filtered through two coffee filters.

4. The normally clear liquid (a little brown/yellow coloring resulted from using non-bleached filter paper) was evaporated on a boiling waterbath in a 2l steelbowl. This took about 80 minutes.

5. The result: pure, crystalline acetylsalicylic acid.

6. The acetylsalicylic acid crystals were spread in a glass dish and heated in oven at 70 °C for 30 minutes to evaporate the remaining ethanol. Result: 56g (60g theoretically) nitration

7. Then the 56g acid crystals were put in a 500ml erlenmeyerflask containing 220ml concentrated sulfuric acid 96%.

8. The acid was heated to dissolve the crystals. (Temp. around 70 °C)

9. 220ml sulfuric acid failed to dissolve all 56g acetylsalicylic acid. Small portions sulfuric acid was added until all acetylsalicylic acid was dissolved. Finally a total of 330ml sulfuric acid was used.

10. The dark red solution (~400ml) was poured in an 1000ml erlenmeyerflask. To prevent spreading clouds of NOx a 100ml erlenmeyerflask was put upside down in the mouth of the 1000ml erlenmeyerflask and only removed for nitrate addition.

11. The addition of 115g dry potassium nitrate (outside) was carried out in small portions using a folded piece of paper. This took 75 minutes. (The color of the solution changes with the addition of the nitrate from very dark red to a yellow/orange tone.)

12. After all potassium nitrate was added the solution was allowed to cool to room temperature. The hot liquid was clear, while cooling many tiny yellow crystals precipated until it was more or less thick slurry. (similar to AP slurry)

Precipitation & purification

13. A 1,5l glass standing in a plastic bowl was filled with 750g fine crushed ice (distilled water) and 250ml cold distilled water.

14. The acid was poured slowly into the ice/water mix. Because the acid was poured not slowly enough a *big* foaming started and some of the yellow foam and liquid was lost by overflow. SHIT – i wanted to know the yield of this method! A little red-brown NOx gas was released too, i think it was trapped in the foam.

15. Most of the crystals collected at the bottom of the glass after 20min, ca. 700ml liquid were carefully poured off and replaced by 500ml cold distilled water.

16. After waiting a few minutes for the crystals to settle again , the content was filtered through a coffee filter. The resulting liquid was disposed and the crystals scooped out of the filter. (No metals here, use wood or plastic!) Result: 120g of wet picric acid with unknown water content.

17. Now the 120g picric acid crystals were dissolved in 300ml boiling distilled water and then cooled to 25 °C (perhaps cooling it down to let’s say 10 °C would increase the yield a little bit…) Again filtering through a coffee filter the crystals were scooped out of the filter and placed in a pyrex dish.

Drying & further processing

18. The pyrex dish with the PA was placed in an oven set to 80 °C, which was checked with a digital thermometer. (most of the time the temp. was around 75 °C) It remained there for 120 minutes.

19. The total amount of dry PA was 44g. What the fuck? There where 76g water in the first filtered crystal portion??? Or are there so much impurities that dissolve in the washing??? I filtered at ca. 25 °C, perhaps cooling it down to let’s say 10 °C would increase the yield a little bit…

Optional – Plastic explosive

20. 4,4g white candle wax and 2,2g vaseline (peroleum jelly) were molten in a hot water bath, poured on the dry PA and kneaded in (suggested in KIPE II to produce a plastic explosive). However it didn’t get very plastic although it’s possible to form little balls that don’t crumble. But without a container it will not hold together in larger quantities.

21. The 50g explosive mix were put in a pill box and fired with a 2g AP detonator. Very loud, but not as impressive as I thought. Maybe the wax shit wasn’t the best idea, it becomes a little insensitive.

Manufacturing method 3 – Picric Acid/Trinitrophenol (from aspirin, Acetylsalicylic Acid)

From “Preparatory Manual of Explosives – Ledgard.pdf”

Picric acid is a pale yellow, odorless solid with a melting point of 123 celsius. It explodes when heated to 300 C. It is relatively insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and benzene. Picric acid is toxic and can be absorbed through the skin with effects similar to DNP. Picric acid should be stored wet with 10% water, and kept in a cool place and away from fire. Picric acid will detonate if rapidly heated or on percussion – the percussion is much higher than for most primary explosives.

VOD: 7400

Sensitivity: Low

Stability: Good

Flammability: Burns with smoky flame but may flash on strong ignition

Toxicity: Above moderate

Classification: Secondary explosive

Overall value (as secondary explosive): High

Materials:

50 g of aspirin

350 ml of 95% ethyl alcohol

350 g of 98% sulfuric acid

115 g of potassium nitrate or 95 g of sodium nitrate

Summary: In this procedure, picric acid is prepared by the reaction of common aspirin with potassium or sodium nitrate in the presence of excess concentrated sulfuric acid. After the reaction, the entire mixture is then drowned into an excessive amount of ice water, whereby the picric acid precipitates, and is then collected by filtration, washed and then dried.

Hazards: Use caution when handling 98% sulfuric acid, which is highly corrosive and chars many substances. Extinguish all flames before using 95% ethyl alcohol, which is flammable.

Procedure: Place 50 g of aspirin into a beaker, and then add 350 ml of 95% ethyl alcohol (note: about 50 g of aspirin can be obtained by crushing up 100, 500 mg tablets of store bought aspirin tablets – these crushed up tablets can be added directly to the 350 ml of 95% ethyl alcohol). Thereafter, stir the mixture to fully dissolve the aspirin, and then filter off any insoluble impurities – such as starch, and other fillers (if using medical aspirin tablets), and then recrystallize the aspirin from the 95% ethyl alcohol solution. Thereafter, vacuum dry or air-dry the collected aspirin crystals. Now, into a clean flask equipped with thermometer, motorized stirrer and powder funnel, place 350 g of 98% sulfuric acid, and then place this flask into an ice bath, and chill to 0 celsius. Thereafter, slowly add in small portions, 115 g of potassium nitrate or 95 g of sodium nitrate to the sulfuric acid over a period of about 1 hour, while rapidly stirring the sulfuric acid, and maintaining its temperature below 5 celsius. After the addition of the sodium or potassium nitrate, slowly add the dry recrystallized aspirin, in small portions, over a period of about 1 hour while rapidly stirring the sulfuric acid/nitrate mixture, and keeping it temperate below 5 celsius. After the addition of the aspirin, replace the powder funnel with a condenser, and reflux the mixture for 2 hours at 60 celsius while rapid stirring. After 2 hours, remove the heat source and allow the reaction mixture to cool to room temperature. Then gradually add the reaction mixture to 1500 ml of ice water, and then allow the entire mixture to stand for 3 hours. Thereafter, filter off the precipitated picric acid, wash excessively with 10, 250 ml portions of ice cold water. Note: washing with base to remove traces of acid should be avoided as formation of the corresponding picrate salts may develop. After the washing process, vacuum dry or air dry the solid product.

Note, equipment used: a condenser and a hot plate stirrer is a bonus but not required.

Manufacturing method 4 – Picric Acid/Trinitrophenol (from aspirin, Acetylsalicylic Acid)

  1. Crush 20, 5 grain aspirin tablets and add 1 tsp. of water to it to make a paste.

  1. 2. stir in 1/2 cup of ethyl alcohol to the aspirin paste and then filter the solution to remove any solid particles.

  1. Evaporate the alcohol and recover the crystals that are left.

  1. Pour 1/3 cup of concentrated sulfuric acid into a large jar and add the crystals from the alcohol solution.

  1. Heat the acid in a simmering hot water bath for 15 mins. The acid should turn a reddish color.

  1. Now add 15 gms. of potassium nitrate to the acid 5 gms. at a time while stirring.

  1. Let the acid cool to room temperature then pour the acid slowly into 1 1/2 cups of water and let it cool down again.

  1. Filter off the particles of picric acid and wash them with 1 cup of ice water. Dry these crystals before using them.

Picric acid is a very strong dye. Contact with it will stain just about anything. Picric acid also reacts with metal to form picrate salts that are a hazard.

Alternative booster:

Bullseye gunpowder + NM

A high explosive can be composed out of bullseye gunpowder. Nitromethane is added to a quarter kilo of bullseye until it is the consistency of thick gel. Then one eighth of a kilo of pure ammonium nitrate (from cold packs) is added to it and kneaded. This is placed in a plastic bag and detonated in a metal pipe with #8 detonator. This has twice the power of C4.

Tertiary charge (the bulk of the explosives, 50-5000 kg)

ANNM (ammonium nitrate + nitromethane), also known as Kinepak

ANFO (ammonium nitrate + fuel oil)

Both ANFO and ANNM requires confinement for optimal detonation and brisance. ANNM usually contains a 60:40(kinepak) mix of AN and NM (60% ammonium nitrate, 40% nitromethane by mass), though this results in a wet slurry. However, a smaller portion of NM may be used. Sometimes more AN is added to reduce liquidity and make it easier to store and handle, as well as providing an oxygen-balanced mix. ANNM is also more sensitive to shock than standard ANFO and is therefore easier to detonate. These factors, plus its higher RE and VOD, make it a popular explosive among recreational users. ANNM detonates at 22,700 fps.

The quality of your end product really depends on the AN, how fine it is and the quality. Industrial ANNM (used for blasting) is 10% NM with medium prills of AN. Higher strength versions include aluminium dust but it should be a microfine dust to get best results.

ANFO on the other hand requires 93% AN and 7% FO by weight (official recommendation by Dupont). However, In practice, a slight excess of fuel oil is added to compensate for any evaporation. ANFO generally requires a booster in order to detonate. The booster will basically increase the effect of the blasting cap to ensure reliable detonation. It is better to create a larger booster than necessary to avoid taking unnecessary risks. The purer AN you have the smaller booster you will need and vice versa. A 500 kg main ANFO charge should have a 500 g booster and a 10 g blasting cap, to be safe.

Ammonium Nitrate (AN) – KNO3

Ammonium nitrate is a very popular fertilizer in the EU and elsewhere in the world, accounting for about 9 percent of all fertilizer used.

Evaluating fertilizers – optimal purity grade of Ammonium Nitrate

Normally, you would need a minimum of 32% nitrogen in the fertilizer in order to create “an optimal detonation”. However, 27% nitrogen fertilizers will do the job as well as long as you use a larger booster.

A rather confusing factor regarding the nitrogen value; 27% nitrogen (f example labeled as 27-0-0) does NOT mean that there is only 27% AN content. In most, if not all, N-fertilizers you will find aprox 80% AN content. In so called “CAN” fertilizer (Calcium Ammonium Nitrate) you will usually find approximately 75-80% AN and 20-25% Calcium.

One source I found states the following:

If the Nitrogen in the NH4NO3 is 30-33% then you need 5-10 g of booster.

If the Nitrogen in the NH4NO3 is 20-25% then you need 15-20 g of booster.

which indicates that lower purity nitrogen fertilizer will still detonate properly as long as you use a larger booster/blasting cap. For 50 kg of CAN (Calsium Ammonium Nitrate) I would use a 200-500 g booster. For 500 kg of can I would use a 500 g to 2 kg booster.

Will the CAN 27 fertilizers available at my supplier detonate without purification?

Despite more than 6 weeks of research, and reviewing hundreds of guides and a ton of forum posts, I was unable to confidently answer the following essential questions:

  1. Will the following AN fertilizers (N-fertilizers) detonate without further purification or will the Calcium, Magnesium and Sulfur additives make the AN inert and thus unsuitable without purification?

  1. Will the prills/granules of these specific fertilizers absorb diesel and/or nitromethane or has these products been compacted and treated with a compound that prevents absorption of liquid so that we would first have to pulverize the prills/granules?

Ironically, it wasn’t until I reviewed a state funded anti-terror site I was finally able to find the answers I was looking for.

So let’s try to answer our two questions;

  1. Yes, calcium has been added to attempt to inert (make impotent) or to make the fertilizer non-explosive. The good news is that it would require 80% Calcium mixed with 20% AN to make the fertilizer completely inert. The only thing they accomplish with adding 20% calcium Carbonate is to make it a little harder to detonate. It will f example make it hard to properly detonate smaller charges of the fertilizer (>50 kg). This forces the handler to use larger amounts of fertilizer (<100 kg) and use larger boosters. CAN fertilizer (Calcium Ammonium Nitrate) is the best option when manufacturing explosives (unless you can get your hands on pure AN which is increasingly harder to acquire in large quantities). Also, according to a forum source, CAN fertilizer is the best option to use for purification of AN through crystallization.

  1. Yes; they have deliberately made the granules/prills less porous (they have compacted them) with the intention of making it harder for each granule/prill to easily absorb fuel oil. They have therefore made it harder for us to manufacture and prepare large quantities of AN explosives. However, this is easily bypassed by pulverizing the granules using a wood-roller on a wood board. It is a tedious task to pulverize 500-2000 kg of CAN fertilizer but the labour invested will be rewarded with a considerably more potent product. CAN fertilizer should be detonated under confinement or it may not detonate at all. Also, try to add as much, 400 mesh, flaked aluminium powder (up to 15% by weight) to nullify the desensitizing effect the 20% Calcium Carbonate has on the compound. Finer or coarser aluminium powder (atomized included) will work as well but 400 mesh, flaked aluminium powder is optimal, according to the book: Kitchen Improvised Explosives. Mixing this pulverized compound with diesel requires a specific approach, one which I lack experience on atm, but I will find a good way when I get that far.

Which types of fertilizer can I use without the need to purify them?

The following 4 fertilizers are so called N-fertilizers from the Norwegian fertilizer manufacturer Yara; one of the largest fertilizer manufacturers in the EUs inner marked. Important note: It is the N fertilizers that are suitable for manufacturing explosives, NOT NPK, NK, NP, PK, P or K fertilizers.

CAN N27 (CAN 27-0-0)

Kalkammonsalpeter where the nitrogen consist of equal parts of ammonium and nitrate. Magnesium and calcium has been added into this mix in unknown quantities. Sold in a 500 kg bag. CAN is probably an abbreviation for Calcium-Ammonium-Nitrate.

27% nitrogen total (N) 13,5% nitrate/NO3 and 13,5% ammonium/NH4

5% Calcium (Ca)

2,4% Magnesium (Mg)

OPTI KAS 27-0-0 (OPTI-KAS is a brand name of Yara)

Kalkammonsalpeter where the nitrogen consist of equal parts of ammonium and nitrate. Magnesium and calcium has been added into this mix in unknown quantities. Sold in a 600 kg bag.

27% nitrogen total (N) 13,5% nitrate/NO3 and 13,5% ammonium/NH4

4,3% Calcium (Ca)

2,4% Magnesium (Mg)

OPTI-NS 27-0-0 (4S) (OPTI-NS is a brand name of Yara)

27% nitrogen total (N) 13,5% nitrate/NO3 and 13,5% ammonium/NH4

6% Calcium (Ca)

0,7% Magnesium (Mg)

3,7% Sulfur (S)

Sulfur-CAN 27-0-0 (4S)

27% nitrogen total (N) 13,5% nitrate/NO3 and 13,5% ammonium/NH4

5,4% Calcium (Ca)

4,5% Sulfur (S)

According to wiki Kalkammonsalpeter fertilizers (the two first alternatives, out of the four) contains aprox 74% ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and 26% Calcium as Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). So even though the nitrogen level is stated as being 27% (very misleading) the total AN level of the fertilizer is 75-80%. It is a bit confusing, I know.

EUSSRs efforts to make common explosive materials inert

The Western European multiculturalist regimes have made our job and duty (to prevent the Islamic colonization of Europe through demographic warfare) a lot more difficult as they have gone to great efforts to desensitize and thus rendering inert explosive chemicals that can be directly mixed and then made to detonate. A desensitized mixture can be more difficult to initiate (cause to explode) or may explode with a dramatically reduced energy output. A material that is difficult to initiate also requires a more energetic initiation scheme (larger booster). Taken to its ultimate conclusion, desensitization renders a material inert or unable to detonate. Desensitization cannot eliminate the threat posed by bomb making and use, but it places a heavier burden on us, thus increasing the likelihood that we will revert from explosive shock attack strategies and move toward operations which involve mass execution of category A and B traitors using firearms and smaller bombs instead.

Here is a section of the EUSSR strategy:

The “EU Marxist-Islamic committee for the facilitation of the successful Islamic colonization of Europe” adopted legislation which is basically just a cut-n-paste job from US legislation which was implemented after the Oklahoma bombing and 9/11.

The legislation focuses on the following:

Is effective in preventing use of the chemical as an illegal explosive. The ideal inerting method is capable of preventing an explosion when the inerted chemical is intimately mixed with other materials (oxidizers or fuels) chosen to provide the correct reaction stoichiometry. The chemical, mixed with other ingredients, does not detonate in a large-diameter charge, even when driven with a large booster.

Is immune to countermeasures. The ideal inerted substance is not readily separated from the diluent or detonation-arresting catalyst by physical size separation or other simple means. A material rendered inert by a change in its morphology is not readily convertible to the detonable form.

Retains the effectiveness of inerting over time. The efficacy of the ideal inerting method does not degrade with time owing to evaporation of the inerting materials or reversion to thermodynamically preferred (more explosive) morphologies.

Retains efficiency of the inerted substance for its normal, nonexplosive use. The ideal inerted substance retains its full utility in commerce; e.g., inerted fertilizer-grade ammonium nitrate is still usable as fertilizer. Neither the diluent nor the detonation-arresting catalyst has adverse effects on the commercial high-volume uses of the substance.

The committee developed a method of analysis to rank—by potential for use in bomb making—a committee-derived list of commonly available explosive chemicals that could be mixed to form explosives. The purpose of the ranking scheme, described in Appendix K, was to characterize commercially available common explosives chemicals according to the following criteria:

availability and accessibility,

Ease of use in bomb making,

cost, and

History of prior use in illegal explosives.

The results in Table 4.2 suggest that ammonium nitrate (AN) is the common explosive chemical with the highest potential for use in a large anti-Islamisation bomb. The ease of purchase in large quantities coupled with ease of use confirms AN as the common chemical most likely to appeal to illicit users. The committee therefore focused on an examination of methods to inert AN. Although urea and nitric acid are produced in high volumes, neither can be used as an explosive without additional chemical processing, thus making them less threatening than AN. Many other chemicals such as ammonium perchlorate and other perchlorates could be considered as well. However, the committee chose to exclude military and a number of other explosives as well as energetic materials that could potentially be obtained by illegal means. Instead, it focused on those chemicals that could be obtained commercially in significant quantities, emphasizing history of actual use in large bombs

The “inerting committee” focused on the following compounds by creating the following report:

Strategy to render bulk AN inert

In principle, desensitization or inerting can be done in three general ways:

(1) by changing a material’s physical form to make mixing less efficient to or make the material less sensitive to initiation, for example, separating the fuel from the oxidizer so that the concentrations within the reaction zone are not balanced chemically to support detonation;

(2) by diluting the explosive material with an inert additive that will take energy from the chemical reaction, possibly leading to failure of a detonation or to a lower explosive yield; and

(3) by combining the material with an active additive that will catalytically interfere with the detonation process, much as fire retardants are commonly added to textiles and polymers to reduce their potential to burn. There is a great attraction to the search for an additive that could, when added in small concentrations, render energetic chemicals inert to detonation.

An extensive British research effort over the last decade has focused primarily on inerting AN by diluting it with similar, but inert, fertilizer ingredients. However, no practical system for inerting bulk AN has yet been found.

Beginning in 1972, regulations in Northern Ireland limited the availability of sodium chlorate and nitrobenzene, and restricted the manufacture, sale, and purchase of fertilizer to formulations containing no more than 79 percent AN. Following these actions most of the AN fertilizers used in agriculture contained dolomitic limestone or chalk as additives (in amounts of 21 percent). This fertilizer mixture, known as calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), was soon adopted by terrorists for use in making bombs, several of which have been set off with devastating effects in Northern Ireland and in London. Although the 1972 regulations do not prevent AN bombings, they do make the construction of AN bombs somewhat more difficult.

Regulations in South Africa classify porous prilled AN as an explosive, raising its cost and effectively eliminating its use as a fertilizer. As a result, the agricultural and commercial mining industries in South Africa use lime ammonium nitrate, which is not regulated (Rorke et al., 1995). Like CAN, lime AN contains about 20 percent calcium carbonate (limestone) intimately mixed with the AN and manufactured to have little porosity. Lime AN can be combined with roughly equal weights of undiluted prilled AN and fuel oil and used as a material similar to regular ammonium nitrate/fuel oil for blasting. Although this combination is chosen for reasons of economy, its use suggests that the desensitizing additives do not materially degrade the performance of the explosive under all circumstances.

Changing Ammonium Nitrate’s Physical Form

The physical form of an AN prill can be altered by changing properties such as particle size, density, crystal structure, or porosity. A hard, dense prill (or a prill with a nonporous outer shell) is more difficult to detonate than a low-density porous prill. Thus, decreasing AN particle porosity, perhaps through adjustments made in the prill manufacturing process, can desensitize the material (Hopler, 1995). Although a change in morphology may make detonation more difficult, it does not necessarily make it impossible. Nonporous fertilizer-grade AN prills may still be detonable in large charges. In addition, terrorists can make dense AN prills more easily detonable by simple (if tedious) means.

Diluting Ammonium Nitrate

The problems with diluting AN can be understood quite easily by looking at extreme cases. A slight dilution (for example, adding 1 part diluent per 99 parts AN) would likely have an insignificant effect on AN’s function as a fertilizer. However, such a small dilution similarly would have very little effect in reducing the detonability of an AN/fuel mixture. Clearly, slight dilution of AN is not effective in inerting.

On the other hand, a drastic dilution (for example, a mixture of 99 parts inert diluent to 1 part AN) would certainly not be detonable, since the active components (the AN molecules) would be too widely separated in the mixture to sustain a detonation. Of course, this highly dilute mixture would also be virtually useless as an AN fertilizer, and so drastic dilution clearly is not practical.

Between the extremes of slight and drastic dilution, both of which present problems, there may exist a mixture that under most circumstances is nondetonable but still is useful as an agricultural fertilizer. To the committee’s knowledge, no such mixture exists that has a diluent concentration of less than 20 percent. It is likely that mixtures exist with a diluent concentration of 50 percent or more that are nondetonable under most circumstances. However, unless the diluent were an equivalent agricultural fertilizer, up to two times as much product would have to be used to yield the same agricultural benefit to farmers.

Limitations of the Porter Patent

Samuel J. Porter’s 1968 patent claims to render fertilizer-grade ammonium nitrate resistant to flame and insensitive to detonation by the addition of specific amounts of ammonium phosphates and small amounts of potassium chloride or ammonium sulfate. It is interesting to note that Porter’s intention seems to have been to reduce accidental detonation of fertilizer-grade AN, primarily as a result of initiation by fire, rather than to prevent intentional detonation.

The most straightforward desensitization scheme from the patent is the mixture of 10 percent ammonium phosphate and 90 percent ammonium nitrate. The patent claims that this AN mixture (when mixed with 5.5 percent fuel oil) is nondetonable under specific test conditions (i.e., when tested in a 4-inch-diameter by 10-inch-long cardboard container holding approximately 3 pounds of material and initiated by a No. 8 blasting cap or a blasting cap plus 24 inches of 50-grains-per foot detonating cord).

Following the 1995 bombing in Oklahoma City, additional tests were performed to evaluate the claims of the Porter patent (Eck, 1995). These tests showed that mixtures of AN with diammonium phosphate, claimed by Porter to be nondetonable, would detonate when tested in larger amounts and with greater confinement (in 6-inch-diameter steel pipes or in 80-pound quantities). The tests quoted in the patent were performed on too small a scale and with insufficient confinement to predict whether the mixtures were, in fact, detonable or not in sizes and conditions likely to be found in an illegal bombing situation.

Based on its examination of efforts abroad to render ammonium nitrate inert, the claims of the Porter patent, and its own knowledge and experience, the committee concluded that there is no established technical basis at this time to recommend a method for inerting bulk AN. To the committee’s knowledge, no approach yet proposed—such as dilution of AN by 20 percent with inert additives such as limestone—achieves the desired inerting of AN, while preserving its utility as a fertilizer for use in agriculture.

Alternatives to Inerting—Limiting Access and Availability

Retail Sale of Packaged Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizers

Approximately 90 percent of all fertilizer-grade AN is shipped as prills and used as a bulk material. Of the 10 percent that is sold in packaged form, only half is bagged at the production site; the other half is bagged at subsequent points in the distribution system (IFDC, 1997), either as a mixture with other fertilizer ingredients or as pure ammonium nitrate. Much of the distribution and end-point sale of bulk AN occurs through agricultural distributors who are likely to know their customers or keep business records of the sale, thus potentially preventing untraceable large-scale sale of AN to terrorists. The small-scale retail fertilizer market, on the other hand, is a commercial source where AN can be purchased without purchaser identification or retailer record keeping. It is unlikely that records exist for purchases of AN from these sources, which include home improvement centers and discount retailers, where a potential terrorist might buy AN for the production of a large bomb.

The committee believes that obtaining pure prilled AN from these sources can be made more difficult without causing undue effects on the marketplace. Much of the fertilizer sold at the retail level is already blended and is likely nondetonable [1]. The nondetonability of such mixtures could be established by following a suitable test protocol. Probably many fertilizer mixtures could be certified as nondetonable by analogy to similar mixtures with the same ingredients and with the same or lower concentration of AN, as is done in the Department of Transportation’s classification of materials for transport (United Nations, 1995). Retail purchase of pure, packaged AN fertilizer could still be allowed, provided that purchasers provided identification and records of the sales were maintained.

Sale of Explosive-grade Ammonium Nitrate for Fertilizer

In considering the question of whether the markets for explosive-and fertilizer-grade ammonium nitrate should be kept separate, the committee observed that the prilled ammonium nitrate used by the fertilizer industry can also be used by a determined bomber. With respect to explosive performance, the basic difference between low-density, explosive-grade prills and high-density, fertilizer-grade prills—assuming the same prill particle size—when formulated as ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) is (1) minimum charge diameter (explosive-grade has a smaller minimum diameter than fertilizer-grade), and (2) detonation velocity (fertilizer-grade AN has a lower detonation rate, at least in charges close to the minimum diameter). This implies a lower detonation pressure for fertilizer-grade AN.

It has been shown that ANFO made from modified fertilizer-grade prills can be made to have explosive characteristics comparable to those achieved with explosive-grade prills. Even unmodified, fertilizer-grade AN mixed with fuel has been demonstrated to be detonable (Hopler, 1961). Therefore, there would be little public safety benefit in excluding explosive-grade AN from the fertilizer market.

Testing for Detonability of Inerted Bulk Fertilizer Mixtures

Unfortunately, questions about the detonability of various ammonium nitrate mixtures cannot be answered easily. Because ANFO, a so-called nonideal explosive, consists of a separate fuel (usually fuel oil, but possibly other carbonaceous materials) and an oxidizer (ammonium nitrate), it releases its energy more slowly over a longer period of time than does an "ideal" explosive such as TNT. In addition, the behavior of a nonideal explosive does not scale linearly with the mass of the explosive mixture (Cook, 1958). Thus, even though tests on a smaller charge mass indicate that a mixture will not detonate, a large charge of an AN mixture can in fact detonate (Eck, 1995). This nonideal behavior of AN has been the source of much confusion concerning the applicability of the claims of the Porter patent (see "Limitations of the Porter Patent" above).

Small-scale tests currently are used by industry to assess the detonability of explosive mixtures. In addition, it will be necessary to have a standard test protocol to evaluate the detonability of any proposed, inerted bulk fertilizer mixtures, whether they are based on ammonium nitrate or other ingredients, under the conditions likely to apply in large-scale bombings.

Tests to evaluate the detonability of bulk fertilizer mixtures and proposed inerting schemes should be performed at a sufficiently large scale to ensure that the conclusions will also hold true for car or truck bomb quantities (approximately 80 to 5,000 pounds). They must also employ a booster charge of sufficient size to adequately test the detonability of candidate inerted materials. A booster of several pounds would be typical for testing car-or truck-bomb quantities of candidate materials. For a nonideal explosive, the minimum, or critical, diameter of a cylindrical explosive charge that will detonate may be relatively large (e.g., 2 inches or more). It is important, in evaluating the detonability of a candidate inerted material, that the experimental tests be performed on charge sizes larger than the critical diameter. A suitable container must also be used to ensure adequate confinement.

Appendix H describes a proposed test protocol supplied for illustrative purposes. This test, or any other that is proposed, must be experimentally validated to confirm that it correctly predicts the detonability of known and candidate (inerted) formulations. Such a test should serve to uniformly indicate whether mixtures pose a potential threat in the hands of a person attempting to construct an illegal explosive device. Once a suitable test has been developed, many organizations should be capable of running it without difficulty (see Appendix I).

H Test to Evaluate Detonability

An example of a standard test protocol for evaluating the detonability and destructive capacity of bulk ammonium nitrate-based fertilizer mixtures is given below. Small-scale tests are currently used by industry to assess the detonability of explosive mixtures. However, no standard test protocol is available to test the detonability of bulk fertilizer mixtures under the conditions likely to be used in large-scale bombings.

It has been determined through years of design and testing of explosive materials such as water gels and blasting agents that some of these require emplacement in containers or boreholes of large cross-sectional area (i.e., must have a large minimum diameter) before they will sustain a detonation reaction. This is a good safety feature for commercial applications, assuming that the minimum diameter is less than the diameter of the boreholes being drilled at a mine. An attractive explosive product is one that will detonate in a borehole of a certain size but will be incapable of sustaining detonation in the smaller diameter of a pumping apparatus or the hose used to place the explosive in the borehole.

The material used by the explosives industry to simulate borehole conditions is schedule 40 steel pipe. Many tests have shown that this pipe provides the same detonation conditions in the same diameter as a competent rock borehole,1 as evidenced by the achievement of the same detonation velocity in both media. Testing in other forms of confinement such as stovepipe, cardboard tubes, or tile pipe has required far larger diameters to achieve the same detonation velocity, or indeed any detonation at all.

Research to Develop Methods of Inerting

Although no effective inerting or desensitizing methods have yet been found for use with bulk AN, research should be conducted to ensure adequate options for action in the event that terrorist bombings with AN become more frequent.

Conclusions

Although a number of common chemicals could be used in illegal bombings, the common explosive chemical likely to be of greatest threat is ammonium nitrate. The committee’s qualitative ranking of common explosive chemicals, based on availability and accessibility, ease of bomb making, cost, and history of prior use, indicated that ammonium nitrate (AN) is by far the most obvious material for making large bombs.

Despite ongoing research in both the United States and abroad, no practical method for inerting ammonium nitrate has yet been found. No additive (such as claimed by the Porter patent) has been shown to be capable of rendering fertilizer-grade AN nondetonable under all circumstances when the additive is present in concentrations of about 20 percent or less. The present state of knowledge identifies neither the additive nor the critical levels of inertant needed to guarantee nondetonability. High concentrations of inertants may not be practicable, because of both their cost and their deleterious effect on the utility of the fertilizer.

Other inerting additives/experiments you should be familiar with is:

Coal combustion byproducts (CCBs, Fly-ash C, Fly-ash F and FGD) were evaluated for their effectiveness as blast mitigating agents when applied as a coating to CAN fertilizer. 5 kg ANFO bombs confined in steel containers were prepared coated with 10-50% of the inerting compounds. Tests showed that they had to use a 15% or more of the additive to prevent detonation. When the AN prills were crushed into powder, they had to use 20% or more of the substance to prevent detonation. Conclusion: failure to efficiently inert.

Source:

  1. Fertilizer-grade aN fertilizer labeled as 34-0-0 in hardware store nomenclature is 34 percent nitrogen by weight. Most small-scale retail fertilizers intended for home and garden use typically include some fraction of phosphorus and potassium, represented by the other two digits in the fertilizer marking system.

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5966&page=106

How to purify fertilizer grade Ammonium Nitrate

In its pure form: KNO3, ammonium nitrate can be detonated with a 6 dynamite cap at a blast radius of 14,000 feet per second. However, KNO3 has become increasingly difficult to acquire.

CAN fertilizer that “looks right” might result in an inert compound as many substances are hard to fraction out as they were intentionally put there to prevent easy distillation. A small amount of Magnesium or Sulfur does not make the fertilizer inert. However, I don’t have enough time to research which purification method that should be used to remove these compounds, if this is desirable.

Before buying the fertilizer check the composition of the mixture. 32(34)-00-00 is the absolute best option and can even be used without purification but unfortunately, the EU banned it several years ago. You need a minimum of 32% purity on the AN. The current mixes are only available in 27-xx-xx usually so it MAY require purification. Also, the most similar compounds are often not available in 50 kg bags, and only available in 600 kg+ large bags due to the EUs anti-terror laws. The EU will most likely ban “usable” AN fertilizers completely and force everyone to use Urea based fertilizers instead (46-00-00). The problem with urea (urea nitrate) is that it is much more unstable than AN with a significant decomposition rate. In addition, it is considerably more time consuming to convert Urea fertilizer to large quantities of Urea Nitrate (more than 100 kg) for one person. This in combination with the limited 30 day “shelf life” of Urea Nitrate limits its use significantly as an explosive. We may go down that road in the future, but at the moment, better options are available.

If fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate is to be used it may have to be purified first in order to maximize the effectiveness. I am not yet 100% sure which of the additives included in the various types of fertilizer will make the compound inert. To be sure you get a fertilizer type you can work with find a compound similar to the old classic: 32-0-0 (which the EU banned a few years ago). The reason they banned it was because you basically got a finished blasting agent. All you had to do was to add 6-7% diesel and you had ANFO, ready to use.

AN vs Urea

Sources for Urea is the fertilizer: 46-00-00 or often the prills used for de-icing sidewalks. Urea can also be derived from concentrated urine (animal and human). This is a common variation used in South America and the Middle East by terrorists. Many animals (e.g., dogs) have a much more concentrated urine and it contains a higher urea amount than normal human urine.

Urea nitrate would not be the method of choice for +100 kg detonations due to the rapid decomposition of the more unstable urea nitrate which reduces the shelf life to 30 days. AN is preferred as it is much more stable and has a considerably longer shelf life (up to 1-2 years). Also, it takes considerably longer and more knowledge in chemistry to convert urea fertilizer to urea nitrate, compared to AN. The only advantages of Urea nitrate is that it is easier to acquire the products needed and it is more sensitive to detonation than AN. Urea nitrate is "piss" easy to make and there’s also a certain amount of "Fvck You" factor in there as well because… well… we just blew you up with our urine:P Still, not recommended as long as you have access to AN.

Evaluating the nitrogen level in X-0-0

Each fertilizer has an analysis table that tells you the percent of nitrogen (N) – phosphorus (P2O5) – and potassium (K2O) by weight. Urea is 46-0-0, and ammonium nitrate is 34-0-0. Both of these products contain nothing but nitrogen, but the nitrogen is at different percentages. Urea contains 920 actual pounds of nitrogen per ton, and ammonium nitrate contains 680 actual pounds of nitrogen by ton (2,000 x 46% = 920 and 2,000 x 34% = 680).

Evaluating fertilizer grade AN and the added impurities

Fertilizer grade AN bought in garden stores etc today are full of impurities like anti waking agents, ammonium sulphate, NaCl, Ca(NO3)2, sodium bicarbonate and other impurities.

The N-P-K numbers are a fertilizer convention for percentages of elements that plants need in fairly large amounts. These numbers aren’t what you’re looking for as a chemist seeking raw materials.  What you want is an ingredients list.  As for purifying this fertilizer, you’ll have to look up what’s in it, and how the impurities differ from ammonium nitrate, before you talk about what purification method you’ve chosen. Unfortunately, there are several ways to purify/distill AN based on the compounds it is mixed with. Crystallization is one method of refinement but it doesn’t work properly if there are certain compounds in the mix.

If the fertilizer is a mixture of ammonium nitrate, superphosphate (that’s fertilizer jargon for Ca(H2PO4)2)) and trace metals (usually as chelates,) recrystallization can give you a pure solid. You will have to be sure any and all impurities are complete insoluble in water/ethanol/methanol /whatever to say that recrystallization is a good purification method. If that’s not the case, you’ll have to do fractional crystallization, an important beginner purification method in college classes.

Potential problems:

– Learn the solubility table on AN (NH4NO3) in hot methanol

– Methanol is relatively expensive…

Questions I haven’t been able to answer through my research:

  • Is there a way to replace the methanol with another product? Will ethanol work?


The "N" in fertilizer can come from a variety of sources — potassium nitrate (provides some "K"), calcium nitrate (plants need Ca for strong cell walls), or even urea.  They can be converted to ammonium nitrate (the first two easier than the last one,) but that’s a roundabout way of addressing your need for ammonium nitrate.

The closest alternative today, I believe, is 27-0-0 or something similar. If you are unsure which additives are added and the effect it has, research the specific products offered by your national suppliers and ensure that you get ammonium nitrate with minimal additives. There are various ways to purify fertilizer which is based on the specific additives. Unfortunately, I am not competent enough to give you a specific guide on each additive and the various methods which can be used to remove the specific additive.

Purification method 1 – Crystallization using water

It is possible to purify using simply water. You basically crystallize it from water as it has a solubility differential over temp in that. It is possible to remove many impurities by just dissolving it in boiling water..you will dissolve anything ionic. Filter it while really hot to remove insoluble’s then let it cool and collect the AN. If you want really pure stuff, do a couple more recrystallizations to get out any remaining impurities. And NO! You do not need pure AN to make ANFO or ANNM. Believe me I have detonated enough ANFO full of sticks, sawdust, plastic chunks, and miscellaneous crap to know.

However, if there are sodium compounds in there then he can’t just dissolve in water and filter.

If you encounter problems try reducing the amount of water used or else reduce the temperature. Don’t use boiling hot water. Try to get the temperature of the water to 50 deg. or so. This will reduce the yield but it will avoid some substances with a low solubilty to dissolve. Ammonium nitrate dissolves 118g/100g water @ 0C therefore reducing the temperature will still dissolve much of the nitrate.

Purification method 2 – Crystallization using methanol

The following method will show you at least the best known purification method. This is done by boiling Methanol Alchohol and adding the fertillizer Ammonium nitrate until no more of it will dissolve. 20.2 g AN (NH4NO3) per 100 g methanol at 30 degrees C. There are values for other temperatures too, but solubility doesn’t seem to vary rapidly.This is then cooled in an ice bath and the white crystalls deposited at the bottom are pure Ammonium Nitrate. Thus the pure Ammonium nitrate can be heated on a lowest temperature on a pan in the oven until very dry. Store it in a tightly closed container.

Another similar method is the following: to purify "dissolve the fertilizer in hot methanol and filter the solution. By mixing the solution with an equal volume of unleaded gasoline, the ammonium nitrate will instantly crystallize."

Cold packs as a source for pure AN

If you are having problems converting fertilizer to a more pure form just try using some other source of ammonium nitrate, like cold packs, or another brand of fertilizer containing ammonium nitrate. The AN from Cold packs is however 10 times as expensive as the fertilizer AN resulting in a limitation regarding the procurement of large quantities.

Storing AN

The shelf life of cold packs (100% AN) is approximately 1-2 years from production date which is usually specified on each package. So, if you need a large quantity, start you’re an acquisition phase aprox 6 months prior to the execution of the mission. Note that the special plastic and vacuum packing is done to ensure this long shelf life so if you take out the AN from the cold packs it might influence the shelf life, regardless of how effectively you manage to contain it. If you are packing it yourself with traditional plastic the shelf life may be dramatically reduced, perhaps down to 4 weeks with poor packing. This will depend on how well you pack it, how much oxygen is available, humidity, temperature during storage etc. Container: heat- OR acid-resistant OR plastic). Instead of storing a 500 kg (which might be poorly packed for long term storage) you should consider breaking the large bag into smaller 50 kg bags. Try to order specialized plastic bags for this purpose.

Mixing AN with fuel

A more common and almost as effective method of mixing is by uniformly soaking prills in opened bags with 8 to 1O percent of their weight of oil. After draining for at least a half hour the prills will have retained about the correct amount of fuel oil.

The fuel will disperse relatively rapidly and uniformly. Inadequate priming imparts a low initial detonation velocity to a blasting agent, and the reaction may die out and cause a misfire. So ensure a large enough booster/blasting cap.

Place the AN into the waterproof container. Sprinkle the diesel fuel onto the AN. Do not “stir” these materials, as that will cause them to pack together. Let stand for 1 hour. Seal the waterproof container.

Note: if powdered AN is being used and it becomes packed, it may be fluffed by ruffing a handful back and forth across a piece of screen or a cheese grater. If AN prills are used (compared to powdered AN) a larger booster charge must be used. Finally, ANFO charges must be at least 5 cm in diameter or they will not detonate properly.

Size of prills matter

However, there is usually little you can do about this fact, with the exception of choosing to powder the AN. In the mining industry, the term ANFO specifically describes a mixture of solid ammonium nitrate prills and No. 2 fuel oil (heating oil.) In this form, it has a bulk density of approximately 840 kg/m3. The density of individual prills is about 1300 kg/m3, while the density of pure crystalline ammonium nitrate is 1700 kg/m3. It is notable that AN prills used for explosive applications are physically different from fertilizer prills; the former contain approximately 20% air. These versions of ANFO which use prills are generally called explosives grade, low density, or industrial grade ammonium nitrate. These voids are necessary to sensitize ANFO: they create so-called "hot spots".

How to pulverize large quantities of ammonium nitrate prills/granules

For small quantities you may simply use a wood roller, the wooden kitchen tool used for rolling dough, on a wood base. However, if you want to pulverize large amounts of AN, 100 kg+, you want to use more advanced methods.

Grinding method 1

Commercial coffee grinders: dedicate one grinder for use on oxidizers. We don’t want fires or explosions when we’re grinding chemicals. Never grind complete or mixed compositions such as black powder in a coffee grinder. The AN should not react with any material in the grinder as long as you use steel blades.

I have found two kinds of coffee grinders: blade-grinders and burr-mills. Don’t get a burr-mill; they don’t work as well as blade-grinders (at least not for coffee beans, perhaps for AN prills). The blade-grinders have a stainless steel blender type blade that spins at high speeds in the bottom of the material cup, pulverizing the material in the process. When evaluating whether to use a smaller, less expensive, blade-type coffee grinders; know that they really don’t last too long if you mill chemicals for a minute or two at a time. To use them, mill your chemicals in pulses of a few seconds at a time. Shaking them while pulse-grinding can give you even faster results. There are different types of coffee grinders. You may want to choose an espresso variant as it will produce a finer powder. However, expect this factor to result in a doubled grinding time.

Be careful of heat buildup. Avoid aluminium blades, use steel blades (it’s usually steel as default). Avoid sparks. Quickly put in airtight container as powdered AN absorb water from air.

Grinding speed; depends on grinder. I did find an example from a commercial espresso grinder:

57 g in 20 seconds which equals 171 g per minute, 10,26 kg per hour. With this speed it would take 97,5 hours to grind 1000 kg of AN prills/granules. However, if you use a grinder constantly then expect it to only last a few hours. So you will probably need up to 10 grinders for 1000 kg prills. Expect the total amount of hours to exceed 200 hours as you don’t want the grinder to overheat. I heard that Baader, the Marxist scumbag from Red Army Fraction bought tens of grinders as they regularly broke down. He even bought a really expensive one but that one broke down as well. They ended up using wood rollers resulting in limited amounts of end product.

Prices range from 30 Euro up to 800 Euro.

Grinding method 2

I have not confirmed this method but it looks good in theory. An electric garbage disposal unit/food waste disposer/sink grinder, aprox 370 W, 2600 RPM, cost: 200 Euro. No knives or blades. Instead, it is a rotating mechanism which presses the material out through small holes in the outer walls.

Grinding method 3 (recommended)

I have never seen this method mentioned in relation to AN prill grinding. However, theoretically, it sounds like a wonderful idea.

A barley crusher/malt grinder is used for grinding barley in micro-brewery operations (enthusiasts brewing their own beer etc). It is a mini grinding mill, a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces.

There are two main suppliers of relatively inexpensive barley crushers; Barleycrusher.com and Crankandstein.net

  1. http://www.barleycrusher.com/

  2. http://www.crankandstein.net/

Of the two I would recommend the Barleycrusher with the following specs:

  • Roller assembly: 1,25” diameter x 5 “ length

  • Models: 7 lb (3,2 kg) or 15 lb (6,8 kg), go with the 15 lb

  • BC adjustment range: 0,015 to 0,070 thousands of an inch. Default set at 0,039. This is the way to fine tune your rollers, to adjust them so that you get finer powder etc.

  • Rollers have: 12 TPI knurl

  • Comes with a solid base with locators to center the Barley Crusher on a 5 gallon plastic pail. (Pail not included)

  • The standard hopper holds 3,2 kg and the optional large hopper holds 6,8 kg. Using a 3/8 drillmotor at 500 RPM gives you a crush rate of 2,7 kg per minute

  • The barley Crusher is shipped fully assembled. There are no adapters needed to use a 3/8 drill motor.

  • Cost: 15 lb variant, costs 115 USD with an additional 60 USD shipping

  • A hand crank is included but it is advisable that you use a drill (you just fasten the drill bit where the hand crank used to be)

  • You will also want a high quality drill with adjustable speed (cheap version drills may be just as good as long as they have an adjustable speed). You want to use a relatively low speed (150-200 RPM). However, you should test and confirm this as higher speeds may be viable. You should not select a battery drill as each battery will only have enough power for 10-12 kg of corn (prills) according to one forum source. Buy a second hand, high quality drill on your local online marketplace or ebay. Just keep in mind that the US voltage (110-120 V) is different from the European (220-230 V).

Grinding method 4 (not available)

Grist Mills for the crushing of barley or wheat are also effective (wind mill, water weel, motorized or by using an oxe). A ton of material can be processed through one this size in about two hours. To bad this method is not an option for 99,99% of us.

Grinding method 5

Various electrical mixers may work.

To test if a compound has AN

To test if fertilizer has ammonium nitrates use a sample and pour on top about half as much sodium hydroxide. Then add a small amount of water. If it starts bubbling and releasing ammonia gas then it has a high concentration of ammonium nitrate.

How to make ANNM/ANFO even more potent by using additives:

  • Aluminium powder

Adding 5 to 20 percent (15% is optimal), by weight, microfine aluminium powder (30 mesh (JIS sieve) or below is optimal) will increase the VOD substantially. The reason why this is often ignored is due to the high cost of aluminium dust. AL makes the mixture more sensitive to detonation and increases the power output of the product. Thus a smaller primer is needed.

  • 3 hydrogen containers (tanks of bottled hydrogen)

Three tanks of bottled hydrogen are placed in a circular configuration around the main charge, to enhance the fireball and afterburn of the solid metal particles. Placing 3 hydrogen containers (on all three sides of the main charge) will increase the blast considerably and add a very potent and lethal incendiary effect. Compressed hydrogen is used for mobile hydrogen storage in hydrogen vehicles. It is used as a fuel gas. At this point in time, 2010, there are at least a few hydrogen filling stations in most European capitals. Two cars that use this fuel: Toyota Prius, Mazda RX-8. You would need three hydrogen storage containers, f example the “Palcan Hydrogen System” container. The use of compressed gas cylinders in this type of attack closely resembles the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing. Both of these attacks used compressed gas cylinders to create fuel-air and thermobaric effects that release more energy than conventional high explosives. Thermobaric effects is also a requirement if you plan to detonate a propan-truck (two stage detonation is required for optimal effect, but a thermobaric effect (detonating fuel-air) is likely to be able to compensate for the lack of the two-stage detonation process. A 50-100 kg booster should be enough in this regard.

  • Magnesium and ferric oxide particles (not confirmed yet)

Surrounding the main explosive with magnesium and ferric oxide particles will increase the VOD.

  • Larger blasting cap and or booster is always a positive factor

Using a larger blasting cap/booster will increase the VOD of ANNM or more precisely, if you fail to use a large enough blasting cap/booster you will fail to detonate all the ANNM optimally.

  • Air bubbles: cork or balsa wood (not confirmed yet)

To add even more kick, you can incorporate tiny air bubbles into the explosive. 17 parts NM, 60 parts AN and add 2 parts of finely ground cork or balsa wood or alternatively 5-7% fuel oil, 90-95% AN and in addition aprox 10-15% of total weight aluminium powder and 3% cork granules (I believe 2-3 mm granules will work). The cork or balsa wood is the source of the entrapped air bubbles in the mixture. There are several suppliers of cork granules, just do a search on google or alibaba.com. However, I have not been able to confirm the efficiency of this additive with the given specifications.

  • Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (not confirmed yet)

When using fertilizer grade ANFO explosives, properties are improved up to 30% by the addition of 0,5-1% “Tide” or Mr. Bubble” or any detergent containing sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate. Mixed in after AN and FO is mixed.

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recrystallization

http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=1112

Manufacturing Aluminium Powder through filing

There are no import restrictions for aluminium powder for a majority (if not all) of EU the countries. Ordering 1-100 kg quantities of aluminium powder quantities from chemical/pyro supply factories is therefore advices. Just be careful and travel directly to the factory to pick up the order if possible.

However, if you want to avoid ordering it online (or pick up an order directly from the factory in f example Poland) you may create limited quantities yourself. You may use various aluminium scrap, or purchase aluminum ingots/bars from hardware stores to file down the aluminum into powder. This method can be cheap and yield good quality aluminum powder, however be prepared to work.

Most files will work, as aluminum is a soft metal. However, you should order high quality aluminium files online. There are variations of aluminium. The harder types, f example: 6061,7075 are filed down quite well without having to cleanse/brush off/load the file. Other types of aluminium like the type that can be found in aluminium plate and cast aluminum are very gummy and stick to a file quite easily.

  • Recommended files: try the Supershear file, or the aluminum cut file (a special file for filing aluminium, check Ebay etc.). According to one source; the Supershear is the fastest hand file. It may need occasional chalking or lubing. The Aluminum cut file is fast, and creates finer powder than the Super Shear. Next, and less accurate, but very much faster is the air or electric die grinder fit with a single-cut burr and lubed with beeswax. It will climb through 1/2" of solid stock in 10 seconds. The next step up is 6", 8", and 12" grinding discs, belt sanders etc.

  • Correct filing motion: the trick is to push hard on the cutting stroke and ease up as you pull back to rattle the pins free. When you carefully pull the file back, you will basically remove much of the powder in between the tooth’s.

  • Cleaning your file: Many people use a piece of copper water pipe (1/2"). Take a piece about 6" – 8" long, squish the first 2" or so inches in the vise of with a Hammer. The round end will be you handle, give a wrap or two with electrical tape or duct tape. Work the tool (copper pipe, squished end -almost a chisel) with the teeth of the file; not with the direction you would file if you were using the file, but side to side. This allows the copper to get under the aluminum and ‘pop’ it out the files teeth. The copper will not wear down or damage your file. Alternatively; you should just use an aluminum bristled wire brush which will clean the file perfectly, almost every time, as long as you clean across the teeth.

  • It is recommended that you do your filing above a container to catch all the powder.

  • Use a particle mask to prevent the inhalation of aluminium dust.

  • The mesh, fineness, of the grain can be increased by using a mortar and pestle to grind the powder down more. However, this will be very time consuming.

  • You should store your aluminium powder in f example glass or plastic containers.

  • Cover story usage: fine aluminium powder is used as a paint component (f example boat paint) to add UV resistance.

  • Estimated aluminium powder produced per hour using a specialized file; I’m not exactly sure, as I haven’t tried it. I would estimate between 50-100 g per hour. So if you wanted 100 kg it would take one person 1000 hours or 125 x 8 hour days, 10 kg = 12,5 x 8 hour days.

NM – Nitromethane

Pure nitromethane is an insensitive explosive with a VoD of approximately 6200 m/s. The reason why NM is so much more powerful than diesel is that nitromethane generates about 2.3 times the power of gasoline when combined with a given amount of oxygen. NM can be obtained from hobby air-plane fuel. The fuel, depending on brand and type, contains anywhere from 12-35% NM. Hobby plane boat-fuel contains the highest percentage (aprox 30-50%) while plane/helicopter fuel is on a second with 12-35%. Model car fuel normally contains the least amount of NM. Ensure that you have created a cover story (that you say you own a T-Rex 600 f example) before you make a purchase.

The average price for a 4 L can of fuel (containing 30% NM) is approximately 31 Euro. In other words; if you want 10 L of pure NM you would have to buy 8-9 of these cans for a total of 280 Euro providing you are able to extract 100% of the NM (which you probably won’t). This fuel usually consists of: 30% NM, 12% oil lubricant and 58% ethanol. I ordered almost 4 cans of this fuel from each available supplier (total of 5 suppliers) and ended up with 18 cans. I could go to my neighbouring countries to buy more or I would have to wait 6 months time before I make another purchase (to prevent suspicion from the suppliers). The fuel can only be transported by ground.

Myths about the dangers of NM

NM is not as dangerous as people would have you think. In fact, nitromethane is one of the safest and cheapest liquid explosives available on the market. It cannot detonate from flame and it is in fact very hard to ignite with a match, and if it does burn, it does so with a lazy blue flame. However, NM is shock sensitive from 6 meters. Nevertheless, as long as you don’t expose pure NM to shock or severe friction you will be ok. It is very stable.

NM safety

  • You can set it on fire, it simply burns like ethanol. Since it is flammable liquid, its vapor with air may form an explosive mixture (like many organic solvents).

  • Nitromethane is in fact very hard to ignite with a match, and if it does burn, it does so with a lazy blue flame. It does detonate on shock though. It is very stable.

  • I’m under the impression that nitromethane is definitely an explosive. it is just much less shock sensitive than theoretic claims.

  • Do not pour it into a glass container as the edges have too much friction causing an explosion. Never heat it. Never drop on floor, avoid shock.

  • Never touch it as it reacts with skin and the person affected will be killed within 36 hours.

About NM mixed with methanol

Dilution of the NM mixture with methanol doesn’t prevent the invention from working. The dilution just makes the mixture more difficult to detonate, and the explosive force released is correspondingly reduced. To detonate a methanol solution of NM, about one ounce of high explosive booster is needed. Really diluted solutions, such as one would get from 10% NM product would need even more booster. The mixture keeps really well as long as it is sealed up to prevent the NM and amine from evaporating away. On ounce (28,35 g) is required to detonate.

AN and diluted NM

Mixing 84 parts by weight AN with 16 parts by weight of 50% solution of NM in methanol explosive is is as powerful as high grade dynamite. Weaker concentrations of NM could be used instead of 50% but performance would suffer. I wouldn’t bother with any product under 30% NM. In a known explosives patent, they specify using fertilizer prills of AN. However, finely ground AN made according to the directions in this section would also work. To enhance the performance of this mixture, one could mix in up to 10-15% by weight of AL powder. According to the patent, this mixture can be detonated with a number 8 cap, and doesn’t need confinement for complete detonation.

Purification of NM-hobby fuel

NM can be purified by cooling below its freezing point (28 C), washing the solid with cold diethyl ether, followed by distillation.

How to get more out of Nitromethane

Mix with Trichloroethane (common cleaning fluid)(40 parts AN, 9 parts NM, 3 parts Trich: see PDF: Nitromethane explosives.

Method 1: Separating NM from methanol in hobby fuel – evaporation

It will be hard to get pure nitromethane from your fuel but you should end up with a suitable mix consisting of 50-80% NM, 12% oil and the rest methanol. Methanol evaporates considerably faster than nitromethane, so I’d first just expose it to the air and see when the volume of the liquid had dropped about the right amount. At that point, I don’t know exactly how well the oil, nitromethane, and remaining methanol will separate. Do not let it evaporate below 50% of the original volume or you will end up with more oil than nitromethane.

Water and nitromethane have close to the same boiling point (not that I’d boil nitromethane) and evaporation rates so I would not attempt to mix with water.

Method 2: Separating NM from methanol in hobby fuel – freezing

Example racing fuel contains:

30% NM (CH3-NO2)
12% Oil (X-YZ)
58% Methanol (CH3-OH)

We first need to know the properties of the components to be able to separate them:

  1. All are soluble in each other

2. NM boiling point = 101°C; freezing point = -29°C
Methanol boiling point = 65°C; freezing point = -98°C
Oil boiling point >200°C; freezing point = -10 to -30°C?

With this information we can conclude that simple freeze distillation can be the way to go. Methanol will be separated and you will be left with NM and oil mix. Freezing is, theoretically, a good way to get the methanol out. I haven’t tested it out personally but it should work. Most commercial freezers go as low as -25 to -30 Celsius which is enough to freeze the NM and thus making it easy to separate the methanol. This process should be repeated so that you ensure that you get most of the NM.

According to one forum source; it doesn’t matter if the oil is left in the mix as it won’t be able to make the compound inert. So the final mix should still be effective when creating ANNM.

Method 3: Fractional distillation

Nitrometane distilation from racing fuel is fairly straightforward. It works as a classic simple distillation but to get good results you should try to fraction it as much as possible (long column, packing…). You have to use a decent distillation setup with a thermometer. And no open flames! Eletric heating!

First the temperature remains stable at the boiling point of methanol (65C). You have only methanol coming. This is by far the largest fraction. You might as well stop here or you can continue if you want to gain even purer results.

Then temperature starts rising. You are now collecting a mix of methanol and Nitromethane. This is a large fraction, don’t discard it, redistill.

Then temperature stays at the boiling point of nitromethane (101C). You are now collecting nitromethane.

Then you stop getting condensates and your oil begins to smoke a bit. Turn the heat off.

If you didn’t fraction your distillation enough, a second distillation will give you almost pure nitromethane.

I got 150ml of rather pure nitromethane out of a gallon of 10% nitro fuel.

And for goodness sake DON’T USE A PROPANE BURNER! I did once, and underestimated the temperature. The glass vessel melted. Luckily it didn’t contain anything combustible / explosive.

The Merck index says nitromethane forms explosive salts.Therefore, I believe the extraction of nitromethane with an alkali is not a good idea. These salts are known as nitronates and are extremely unstable. This problem may occur if you boil the NM mix at 80 celsius or above. Small yellow spots may form which is the forming of nitronates. As you turn the heat off, the yellow solids will re-dissolve in the initial nitromethane fraction.

In order to separate the methanol and the nitromathane you need a much better distillation rig, with a fractionating column and a thermometer. For vacuum distillation, you may want to try using a venturi pump – they only cost about 5 USD new.

You also might want to practice fractional distillation with other, less hazardous liquids before moving on to explosives.

Note: there is no good reason why you need purer than 80% NM, so don’t go overboard on the fractional distillation. The risks and efforts are not worth it.

General safety precautions

  • AN/Urea: caution: Never use copper or brass containers because ammonium nitrate reacts with these metals.

  • Aluminium (Al) is very active because it has 3 collection in the outer shell then it can react with any metal, use plastic layers between alu and metal.

  • General stirring. Try to use glass or wood when stirring.

  • Always acquire and modify the skeleton (containers) first

  • Cover as much of your skin as possible, when preparing chemicals, so it doesn’t absorb any fumes.

  • Lab coat or apron should be worn at all times.

  • Lab glassware can be heated to 500 Celsius. Quarts glass is used where high temperatures are needed up to 1200 Celsius. General lab glassware is used for heating liquids as most liquids will never encounter temperatures exceeding 300 Celsius.

  • Never rapidly heat glass. Exposing glassware to immediate high temps can cause cracks and breakage. Cooling hot glassware to quickly can also lead to cracks and breaks. Always allow the heated glass to cool to room temperature by itself before applying it to cold water baths, ice baths, or dry ice baths. Quarts is an exception. It can be heated to 1000 Celsius and then dipped into water.

  • Storage should be in a dark cool dry place away from other chemicals, a lot of explosive devices require use immediately after completion so storage of these could be dangerous.

  • When the materials are added together this should be done gently and carefully to avoid spontaneous detonation, there is especially a danger of friction igniting the material when a chemical is being powdered. Another danger of friction is in the use of pipe bombs, the steel of the pipe can easily cause the powder to explode prematurely so it is advisable to use a plastic bag or paper between the pipe and the chemical.

  • Completed explosive chemicals should be tested in small quantities to verify their operation.

  • If an electronic detonating circuit is to be used, a safety switch should be added to the circuit to prevent an electronic fault causing an explosion.

Container tips

Barrels are common containers for the main explosive. For a barrel, the detonator might be a bag or a metal/alu pipe filled with Picric acid, which contains an even smaller container – the blasting cap (DDNT).

Building the containers/skeleton

Always acquire and modify the skeleton (containers) before you manufacture the explosives. You can f example use a large barrel or medium/mini barrel to place the main charge in. Confinement will ensure an optimal detonation and subsequent destruction power. Non-confined explosives will due considerably less impact unless you design the skeleton in a way that you can create a shaped charge (one directional charge against a specific target).

Blasting cap container

As for the blasting cap container; you can f example use a 0,62 cm x 6,25 cm long alu tube which can usually be bought at hobby stores/model building stores. There are items which is used as landing gear for planes that might prove useful. Buy a board plastic straw to prevent the priming mixture to reacting the with metallic body even when aluminium is used.

Booster container

Use a larger metal/alu pipe.

Detonator-trigger

There are four different types of detonators you can use in order to activate your primary explosive (blasting cap):

  1. Mechanical detonator

  2. Electrical detonator

  3. Chemical detonator

  4. Fuse detonator

I would suggest choosing one of the following detonation devices:

Fuse (EASY)

Buy visco fuse or similar high quality fuse. Choose the most reliable fuse type (6mm in diameter is usually more reliable than 2,5 mm fuses but is harder to come by). Cover the fuse in surgical tubing or the sparks from the fuse may cause early detonation (from either nitro/fuel /chem fumes, or sparks may come into contact with load). There are several different types of fuses. Burn rate is usually 1cm per second (this should be specified on the supplier site) so if you want 2 minutes for evacuation you will need 1,2 meter fuse etc. Web addresses to European suppliers are found at pyroforums. If you’re going to use a fuse, you must normally add a little (1g-3g black powder or similar in the receiving end of the primary charge in order to successfully initiate the rest. You should create a blasting cap and arrange a test prior to operation.

Wireless Radio Firing Systems (MODERATE)

Sold by companies specializing in fireworks detonation systems. Consists of two parts: 1 x Receiver with battery source and 1 x Remote control with battery.

Like the 1Q version from: http://www.e-madeinchn.com/FiringSystems.html

There are other European, US and Chinese companies selling similar items. The 1Q version sold on that site costs 16 USD + 5 USD shipping. This specific version is a 6V with relatively short range: 200 m. You basically just place the receiver close to the charge and plug wires into the chromatic wires, similar to the one you find in light bulbs.

Mobile phone (MODERATE TO HARD)

Same principle as above, just that you use the battery power from the receiver mobile. When you call the receiver mobile with your transmitter mobile (providing you have sorted the wiring from your receiver mobile into the detonation cap (chromatic wires)

Cross wiring multiple explosive devices vs. single load explosive device

Never try to cross wire multiple explosive devices unless it is an absolute requirement. Instead; always focus on single load explosive devices. To illustrate this we can review the 2010 Stockholm Jihadi suicide bombers fatal mistake. By cross wiring 5 pipe bombs he had increased the chance for failure by several hundred percent. With a single load explosive device the chance for failure is approximately 20%. As you attempt to cross wire 5 of these devices you are increasing the chance for failure to 80-95%. Needless to say; this is an unacceptable risk.

Common explosives which are available in large quantities: 500 kg +

Chemical

Availability and accessibility

Ease of use in bomb making

Economy of bomb making

History of prior use

Overall potential use

Ammonium Nitrate (c)

High

High

High

High

High

Sodium chlorate

Medium

High

Medium

High

Medium

Urea (d)

High

Low

High

High

Medium

Nitric acid (d)

High

Very low

High

High

Medium

Potassium chlorate

Very low

High

High

Low

Medium

Potassium Nitrate

Low

High

Low

Low

Low

Potassium Perchlorate

Very Low

High

Low

Low

Low

Hydrogen Peroxide (d, e)

Low

Medium

Low

Low

Low

Calcium Nitrate mixtures (f)

Medium

High

Low

Very Low

Low

Sodium Hypochlorite (e)

Low

Medium

High

Very Low

Low

Calcium carbide

Low

High

Medium

Very Low

Low

Dinitrotoluene

Medium

High

Very Low

Very Low

Low

Nitrobenzene

Medium

Medium

Low

Low

Low

Nitroparaffins (c,g)

Very Low

Medium

Very Low

Low

Very Low

Picric acid

Very Low

High

Very Low

Very Low

Very Low

Potassium Permanganate

Very Low

High

Very Low

Very Low

Very Low

Sodium chlorite

Very Low

High

Very Low

Very Low

Very Low

Active Halogen biocides (c)

Low

Low

Very Low

Very Low

Very Low

Calcium Hypochlorite

Low

High

Very Low

Very Low

Very Low

a Assessment of affordability based on costs of material from chemical supply houses (except for active halogen-type biocides, as indicated by footnote c).

b As determined by the committee based on its experience and information provided by Richard Strobel, ATF, in a personal communication, September 11, 1997.

c Available from garden, swimming pool, and racing supply outlets.

d Precursor requiring chemical reaction for conversion to an explosive.

e Typically available as aqueous solution.

f Ca(NO3)2/NaNO3/NH4Cl/Calcium cyanamide.

g Includes nitromethane.

The above overview obviously does not consider the approach of using “alternative” easily accessible bulk explosives loads such as LNG platforms, LNG tankers, propane trucks etc. In these cases, you would only be required to create a booster charge of 50-100 kg as the bulk of the explosives would be the civilian vessel itself.

Alternative explosives – quick overview

Overview of detonation rates: VOD

ANFO: 3300 M/S (+ extra with ALU), form: powder or prills, impact-friction sensitivity: low, water sensitivity: high

Material: AN (94%) + FO (6%) + ALU (15%)

Detonation: Boster charge + blasting cap required

In bulk: maybe <500

Long term storage: AN up to 1-2 years, waterproof container

Astrolite A: 7800 M/S, form: silvery liquid, impact-friction sensitivity: low, water sensitivity: none

Material: AN 2 parts, Hydrazine (anhydrous) 1 part, ALU powder/flaked 0,6 parts

Detonation: can be detonated with blasting cap but booster greatly improves performance

Difficulty to produce: Moderate

In bulk: maybe, >100

Long term storage: maybe, waterproof container

Astrolite G: 8600 M/S, form: clear liquid, impact-friction sensitivity: low, water sensitivity: none

Material: AN 2 parts, Hydrazine (anhydrous) 1 part,

Detonation: can be detonated with blasting cap but booster greatly improves performance

Difficulty to produce: Moderate

In bulk: maybe, >100

Long term storage: maybe, waterproof container

Cheddite (Type O): 3500 M/S max, form: white semi plastic paste, impact-friction sensitivity: very high, water sensitivity: moderate (absorbs)

Material: Potassium chlorate (powdered) 9 parts, Sodium chlorate (powdered) 9 part, and either of the following: Petroleum jelly 1 part, or Castor oil 0,9 parts, or Kerosene 0,9 parts or Diesel oil 0,9 parts or Cooking oil (any type) 0,9 parts

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: Easy-Moderate, Very simple to produce.

In bulk: maybe >500 (for sake of safety, do not mix more than 14g at a time)

Long term storage: maybe, waterproof container

Cheddite (Type 90/10): 2500 M/S, form: semi plastic paste, impact-friction sensitivity: very high, water sensitivity: moderate (absorbs)

Material: Ammonium perchlorate (powdered) 9 parts, and either of the following: Petroleum jelly 1 part, or Castor oil 0,9 parts, or Kerosene 0,9 parts or Diesel oil 0,9 parts or Cooking oil (any type) 0,9 parts

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: Easy-Moderate, Very simple to produce.

In bulk: maybe <500 (for sake of safety, do not mix more than 14g at a time)

Long term storage: maybe, waterproof container

CTC-AL

Material: mixture of tetrachloride and aluminum N/A

Ammonium Picrate: 7150 M/S, form: yellow or red crystals, impact-friction-water sensitivity: moderate

Material: Picric Acid 1 part, Ammonium hydroxide (3% solution) amount varies.

Detonation: blasting cap, booster

Difficulty to produce: N/A

In bulk: maybe >100 (for sake of safety, do not mix more than 14g at a time)

Long term storage: maybe, waterproof container

Acetylene: 2500 M/S as a solid, form: white colorless gas, impact-friction-water sensitivity: N/A

Material: Acetylene gas container.

Detonation: diamond charge, wrap a ring of plastic explosive around canister, ring must be twice as thick and four times as wide as the thickness of the metal used to make the walls of the canister. Initiator charge must be powerful enough to VERY forcefully breach the walls of the canister.

Difficulty to produce: Easy-Moderate, Very simple to produce.

In bulk: maybe >500 (for sake of safety, do not mix more than 14g at a time)

Long term storage: maybe, waterproof container

Acetone Peroxide: 5200 M/S, form: white crystals, impact-friction sensitivity: very high, water sens: N/A

Material: Hydrogen peroxide (6% solution) 25 parts, sulfuric acid 1,25-2,25 parts, acetone 12-15,15 parts

Detonation: initiate with spark

Difficulty to produce: Hard, dangerous

In bulk: highly volatile material >100 (for sake of safety, do not mix more than 14g at a time)

Long term storage: maybe, airtight container

HMTD: 4500 M/S, form: colorless crystals, impact-friction-sensitivity: extremely high, water sens: moderate

Material: Hexamethylenetetramine 1 part, Hydrogen peroxide (10% solution) 5.25 parts, citric acid 2 parts

Detonation: initiate with a spark

Difficulty to produce: N/A

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: keep cool, exposed to temps 50 celcius + will destroy material.

ANNM: 5000+ M/S, form: damp white powder, impact-friction-sensitivity: low-moderate, water sens: moderate

Material: AN powdered 5 parts, NM 2 parts

Detonation: blasting cap/booster charge (28g)

Difficulty to produce: medium

In bulk: yes >600

Long term storage: mix just before use, air tight/away from water, combine directly in charge container.

Lead Azide: 4600+ M/S, form: colorless crystals, impact-friction-sensitivity: high, extremely high, water sense: low

Material: Lead nitrate 2 parts, Sodium azide 1 part, Dextrin 0,05 parts, Sodium hydroxide 0,05 parts

Detonation: blasting cap/booster charge (28g)

Difficulty to produce: hard?

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: N/A

Mercury Fulminate (best detonator?): 4000 M/S, form: white or gray crystals, impact-friction-sensitivity: very high, extremely high, water sense: low

Material: Nitric acid (90%) 40-60 parts, mercury 1-11,5 parts

Detonation: spark, a 2gm charge will effectively induce detonation in most materials. However, for use in detonating less sensitive explosives, a booster charge of a sensitive explosive (like tetryl or PETN) should be used. In order to stretch available materials up to 25% by weight potassium chlorate may be added to mercury fulminate with no noticeable loss in power. Relatively safe to handle when wet but very sensitive when dry.

Difficulty to produce: hard?

In bulk: maybe >10

Long term storage: If practical, it should be stored slightly wet at cool temps. Store in non-metal container.

Methyl Nitrate: 6500 M/S, form: clear liquid, impact-friction-sensitivity: extremely high, low, water sense: low

Material: Sulfuric acid 24-44 parts, Nitric acid (90%) 16,5-24 parts, Methyl alcohol 10,5-13,5 parts

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: hard?

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: N/A

Nitrocellulose(+): 6500 M/S, form: will depend on materials used – wet cotton, impact-friction-sensitivity: very high, low, water sense: low

Material: Sulfuric acid 3 parts, Nitric acid (90%) 1 part

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: hard? Good as booster charge, fairly easy to initiate and will reliably detonate almost any secondary explosive. Spark sensitive when dry.

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: N/A

Nitrostarch(-): 5800 M/S, form: light yellow powder, impact sens: moderately low, friction sens: N/A water sense: moderate

Material: Sulfuric acid 3 parts, Nitric acid (90%) 1,5 part, Starch 0,25 parts, Ammonium Hydroxide (3% solution) 0,1 part

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: hard? Good as booster charge, fairly easy to initiate and will reliably detonate almost any secondary explosive. Slightly less powerful than NC and a little more difficult to initiate. Reasonably effective as a booster charge. Highly spark sensitive.

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: N/A

NLX: (also called Aerex, PLX) 6200 M/S, form: liquid, impact-friction-water sens: low

Material: Nitromethane: 15-16 parts, Aniline: 1 part, + either Triethylamine 1 part OR Ammonia hydroxide (3%+ solution) 1 part. To get more out of NLX you may add 25% fine sawdust. The new mix will have a 6000 M/S and will increase its water sens to moderate. The new mix is called NSX.

Detonation: booster

Difficulty to produce: Powerful liquid explosive. Booster charge should always be used or performance may be greatly reduced.

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: N/A

NLX: (also called Aerex, PLX) 6200 M/S, form: liquid, impact-friction-water sens: low

Material: Nitromethane: 15-16 parts, Aniline: 1 part, + either Triethylamine 1 part OR Ammonia hydroxide (3%+ solution) 1 part. To get more out of NLX you may add 25% fine sawdust. The new mix will have a 6000 M/S and will increase its water sens to moderate. The new mix is called NSX.

Detonation: booster

Difficulty to produce: Powerful liquid explosive. Booster charge should always be used or performance may be greatly reduced.

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: N/A

PETN: 8400 M/S, form: colorless crystals, impact sens: high, friction sens: moderate, water sens: none

Material: Nitric acid: 14 parts, Pentaerythritol: 3 parts, Acetone 18 parts

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: N/A Powerful explosive with high detonation rate. Excellent as booster and is the filling used in most detonation coords.

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: N/A

Picric Acid: 7250 M/S, form: yellow crystals, impact sens: moderate, friction sens: low, water sens: moderate

Material: Sulfuric acid: 6,6-12 parts, Nitric acid: 2-3 parts, Phenol 0,9-1 part OR ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF MANUFACTURE: Methyl alcohol 12 parts, Sulfuric acid 22 parts, Potassium nitrate: 2,25 parts, Aspirin 1 part

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: Suitable as booster.

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: N/A Keep out of contact with metals as they will react with many. Must be handled very carefully.

Silver powder: N/A but it is an effective explosive M/S, form: dry silver powder, impact-friction-spark sens: VERY high, water sens: high

Material: Sodium chlorate 3 parts OR Potassium perchlorate OR Sodium perchlorate, aluminum powder 1 part

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: EASY, Probably suitable as booster.

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: Must be tightly contained as it loses most of its effectiveness when detonated in the open. Finally, if the materials are not powdered very finely, the final product will be difficult to detonate. Use great care when working with this material. Do not mix more than 28g at a time due to safety. Store in Airtight container.

Tetrazene: N/A but it is an effective explosive M/S, form: dry silver powder, impact-friction-spark sens: VERY high, water sens: high

Material: Sodium chlorate 3 parts OR Potassium perchlorate OR Sodium perchlorate, aluminum powder 1 part

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: EASY, Probably suitable as booster.

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: Must be tightly contained as it loses most of its effectiveness when detonated in the open. Finally, if the materials are not powdered very finely, the final product will be difficult to detonate. Use great care when working with this material. Do not mix more than 28g at a time due to safety. Store in Airtight container.

White Powder: N/A both high and low M/S similar power of cheddite type O, form: dry silver powder, impact-friction-spark sens: very high, water sens: high

Material: Sodium chlorate 3 parts OR Potassium perchlorate OR Sodium perchlorate, Sucrose 1,2 parts

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: EASY, Probably suitable as booster.

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: Must be tightly contained as it loses most of its effectiveness when detonated in the open. Very sensitive to impact, friction and sparks so use great care.

Urea Nitrate: similar to AN M/S, form: colorless crystals, impact-friction-sens: low, water sens: moderate. Moderately powerful explosive that is quite simple to manufacture and relatively safe to handle. The main drawback is that it should be used within 30 days of manufacture as the chemical stability is poor.

Material: Urea 20% solution 3 parts, Nitric acid (90%) 1 part. If possible, cool all materials to 10 celsius. Pour the urea solution into the acid-resistant container. Very slowly STIR the nitric acid into the urea solution. Let the mixture stand for 1 hour. Urea nitrate crystals will settle out of the mixture during this time. Filter urea nitrate crystals out of the liquid using the filter paper and discard the liquid. Slowly pour 1 part of COLD water over the crystals to wash them. The material can be dried using a hot water bath. Place a small amount of material in the bottom of an acid resistant container. Fill a pan with hot water (90 celsius) and then place the container in the pan. Refill the pan with hot water as it cools. Store the material in an acid resistant container.

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: EASY,

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: The main drawback of the material is that it cannot be stored for extended periods of time due to a poor chemical stability. It is recommended that the material be used within 30 days of manufacture.

Nitromethane Liquid Explosive: probably 5000 M/S, form: liquid, impact-friction-sens: moderate, water sens N/A.

Material: Nitromethane 94%, ammonia (aqueous ammonia), either aniline, ethylenediamine or aqueous ammonia (non-detergent) from hardware stores, chemical supply houses, grocery stores.

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: EASY,

In bulk: maybe >100

Long term storage: N/A

Researche om følgende stoffer kan skaffes I bulk: searched Google/Wiki (must check anarchist cookbook:

Picric Acid: Formula: compound, not a formula, Form: yellow crystalline solid, In explosives: Ammonium Picrate. Function: munitions substance. Modern safety precautions recommend storing picric acid wet. Dry picric acid is relatively sensitive to shock and friction, so laboratories that use it store it in bottles under a layer of water, rendering it safe. Glass or plastic bottles are required Source:. Difficulty to acquire: N/A.

Sulfuric acid: Formula: H2SO4, Form: liquid, In explosives: Methyl Nitrate, Nitrostarch+. Function: Lead-acid batteries for cars and other vehicles, ore processing, fertilizer manufacturing, oil refining+. Source: N/A Difficulty to acquire: EASY

Nitric acid: Formula: HNO3, Form: liquid, colorless when pure,, In explosives: Methyl Nitrate, Nitrostarch+. Function: manufacture of fertilizer, production of explosives, etching and dissolution of metals. Also used as the oxidizer in liquid-fueled rockets. Source: N/A Difficulty to acquire: EASY but time consuming. Other: If the solution contains more than 86% nitric acid, it is referred to as fuming nitric acid. Fuming nitric acid is characterized as white fuming nitric acid and red fuming nitric acid, depending on the amount of nitrogen dioxide present. At concentrations above 95% at room temperature, nitric acid tends to rapidly develop a yellow color due to decomposition. Nitric acid is also commonly used as a strong oxidizing agent. Reacts strongly with metals. Grades: technical grades are normally 68% while reagent grades are specified at 70%. A commercial grade of fuming nitric acid, referred to in the trade as “strong nitric acid” contains 90% HNO3. This grade is much used in the explosives industry. Almost pure nitric acid can be made by adding sulfuric acid to a nitrate salt, and heating the mixture with an oil bath. A condenser is used to condense the nitric acid fumes that bubble out of the solution.

Methanol: Formula: CH3OH, Form: liquid, colorless when pure, In explosives: Methyl Nitrate+. Function: Anti freeze. Source: N/A Difficulty to acquire: EASY.

Starch: Formula: compound, Form: white powder, In explosives: Nitrocellulose +, Nitrostarch. Function: carbohydrate found in potatoes, wheat, maize, rice etc. Source: grocery. Difficulty to acquire: EASY

Ammonium Hydroxide (similar to liquid ammonia or simply ammonia): Formula: [NH4+][OH] Form: liquid, In explosives: Nitrocellulose +, Nitrostarch. Function: detergent Source: grocery. Difficulty to acquire: EASY

Nitrocellulose + Nitrostarch ALL completed as Easy

Sodium chlorate (sodium CHLORIDE is table salt but chlorate is something else): Formula: NaClO3, Form: white crystalline powder, In explosives: Cheddite type O. Function: . Source: As of September 2009, wholesale of sodium chlorate weedkiller was banned in all EU countries, but consumers were allowed to use and store the product until 10 May 2010. This was done due to anti terror laws. The main commercial use for sodium chlorate is for making chlorine dioxide, ClO2. The largest application, approx. 95% of the chlorate, is in bleaching of pulp where chlorine dioxide today is the predominant bleaching agent. The active ingredient sodium chlorate is found in a variety of commercial herbicides. Some trade names for products containing sodium chlorate include Atlacide, Defol, De-Fol-Ate, Drop-Leaf, Fall, Harvest-Aid, Kusatol, Leafex, and Tumbleaf. The compound may be used in combination with other herbicides such as atrazine, 2,4-D, bromacil, diuron, and sodium metaborate. Sodium Chlorate was an extensively used weedkiller within the EU, up until 2009 when it was withdrawn after a decision made under terms of EU Regulations. Its use as a herbicide outside the EU remains unaffected, as does its use in other non-herbicidal applications, such as in the production of chlorine dioxide biocides and for pulp and paper bleaching Difficulty to acquire: hard unless you smuggle weed killer from outside the EU. But even then you would have to purify it/extract it from the pesticide. How to create from salt: Take 10g of potassium chloride (”No Salt”) or 8g of sodium chloride. Put it in a beaker. Now add 60ml of 3% H2O2 solution. Heat it gently until it begins to boil; once that happens, add 30ml of baking soda solution. Keep it at a full broil until crystals begin to precipitate out of solution. Once that occurs, you must carry out the most difficult step… dump a lot of ice into the beaker, wait for the ice to melt completely, then filter out the sodium chlorate or potassium chlorate. This must be timed and carried out correctly, or the potassium chlorate or sodium chlorate will be redissolved. If you did not get potassium chlorate or sodium chlorate, it was because you didn’t do it as precisely as is necessary, and you ended up with just potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide. Be careful with this, potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide are byproducts formed by this reaction… potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide are known as LYE which will blind you if it gets in your eyes, and will severely burn your skin.

Hydrogen peroxide: Formula: H2O2, Form: pale blue liquid, In explosives: Acetone Peroxide and HMTD. Function: Strong bleaching agent, used as a disinfectant, antiseptic, oxidizer and in rocketry as a propellant. Very effective for removing and preventing algae in ponds & greenhouses, iron & sulphur in wells, unplugging sewer & septic lines. Source:. Available at pharmacies at 3 and 6% solutions. Difficulty to acquire: moderate, regulated and monitored as it is popular among Jihadi groups.

They are selling food grade: http://www.earthclinic.com/Remedies/hydrogen_peroxide_where_to_buy.html
http://www.FoodGradeHydrogenPeroxide.co.uk

Hexamine (Hexamethylenetetramine): Formula: (CH2)6N4, Form: white crystalline compound, In explosives: HMTD. Function: Useful in the synthesis of other chemical compounds e.g. plastics, rubber additives.Source: survival stores, sport stores Difficulty to acquire: moderate, Esbit tabs (survival gear for starting fires etc.)

Diol/Glycol (Propylene Glycol same?): Formula: compound, example: methanediol H2C(OH)2, Form: N/A, In explosives: Nitroglycol. Function: N/A. Source: Propylene glycol (dunno if same) is used in many manufacturing processes. Its even used to make ice cream. It should not be hard to find in any catalog that sells chemicals like a Fisher catalog. They sell to laboratories and industrial manufacturers. Although you would probably have to buy a drum of it.N/A Difficulty to acquire: MODERATE.

Aniline (phenylamine/aminobenzene): Formula: C6H5NH2 Form N/A, In explosives: NLX. Function: Rubber processing chemical, industry use. Source: N/A. Difficulty to acquire: N/A

Phenol (carbolic acid): Formula: C6H5OH, Form white crystalline solid, In explosives: Picric Acid. Function: The major uses of phenol involve its conversion to plastics or related materials. Condensation with acetone gives bisphenol-A, a key building block for polycarbonates. + embalming bodies. Source: Chemical suppliers. Difficulty to acquire: moderate

Pentaerythritol: Formula: C5H12O4, Form: white solid, In explosives: 5% of total mix in PETN. Function: alternative and replacement to polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), and even silicone-based or fluorinated hydrocarbons, as dielectric fluid in transformers. Source: prescription and regulated substance. Can be ordered online from companies worldwide but they may require permits. Alternatively, the shipment may be stopped in customs. Difficulty to acquire: hard.

Acetone: Formula: (CH3)2CO, Form: colorless liquid, In explosives: 60% of PETN. Function: solvent for cleaning purposes, familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner and sanitary cleaner/nail polish remover base. Source: – from nail polish remover, from paint store, most hardware stores have it. Difficulty to acquire: easy.

Hydrazine: Formula: N2H4, Form: colorless liquid, In explosives: 30% of Astrolite A+G. Function: Several uses in industry. Source: hydrazine sulfate more available than hydrazine. Difficulty to acquire: hard.

Carbon tetrachloride (known as carbon tet in the cleaning industry): Formula: CCl4, Form: colorless liquid, In explosives: CTC-AL. Function: Formerly widely used in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to regrigerants and as a cleaning agent. The production of carbon tetrachloride has steeply declined since the 1980s due to environmental concerns and the decreased demand for CFCs. Source: N/A Difficulty to acquire: hard.

Ammonium perchlorate: Formula: NH4ClO4, Form: white granular, In explosives: Cheddite type 90/10. Function: Not widely used. Source: It is the salt of ammonium and perchlorate. All perchlorates are potentially powerfull oxidizers. AP is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid. It can be prepared by treatment of ammonium salts with sodium perchlorate. Difficulty to acquire: hard.

Potassium chlorate: Formula: KClO3, Form: white crystalline substance, In explosives: Cheddite type O. Function: Most common chlorate in industrial use. As an oxidizing agent, as a disinfectant, in safety matches, in fireworks, in cultivation. Source: In the old days you could buy it from fireworks store or at any science lab companies. Due to anti terror laws it is now quite regulated. You may need a licence to produce fireworks etc. Difficulty to acquire: hard

Acetylene: Formula: C2H2, Form: colorless gas, In explosives: N/A. Function: fuels gas torches etc. Source:. Difficulty to acquire: you can fill up gas containers/canisters at Welding Supply companies. hard

Lead nitrate: Formula: Pb(NO3)2, Form: colorless crystals or white powder, In explosives: Lead azide. Function: Little used, regulated replaced a few decades ago due to the hazardous nature of this toxic material. Source: N/A Difficulty to acquire: hard

Sodium azide: Formula: NaN3, Form: colorless salt, In explosives: Lead azide. Function: It’s the gas-forming component in many car airbag systems. Source: N/A Difficulty to acquire: hard

Sodium perchlorate, Used in Tetrazene. Suppliers: N/A Difficulty to acquire: hard

Triethylamine: Formula: N(CH2CH3)3, Form liquid, In explosives: NLX. Function: Production of quaternary ammonium compounds for textile auxiliaries and quaternary ammonium salts of dyes. Source: Chemical suppliers. Difficulty to acquire: hard

Potassium nitrate (same source as AN – fertilizer)

Tetryl, too hard to produce

TNT: 6900 M/S, very complex to produce.

Sulfurless Black Powder: 1500 M/S, Better for tightly contained fragmentation charges but less effective as a propellant or blasting charge.

Potassium nitrate 8,2 parts OR Sodium nitrate, wood charcoal (powdered), Methyl alchohol (70%+) 10 parts, OR Isopropyl alchohol OR Ethyl alchohol. Alternative method of manufacture: Potassium nitrate: 9,5 parts OR sodium nitrate 10 parts, wood charcoal (powdered),

Sulfurless Black Powder (Dry mixed), somewhat less powerful then wet mized but quicker to produce.

Silver Acetylide: extremely high impact/friction sensitivity

Nitric Acid 4,5 parts, Silver 1 part, Methyl alchohol (70%+) 25 parts, OR Isopropyl alchohol OR Ethyl alchohol, Acetylene/any canister

Semtex: 8000 M/S very hard to make

RDX A: 8500 M/S, form: colorless crystals, impact sens: moderate, friction sens: low, water sens: none

Material:Nitric acid (90%) 3 parts, Hexamethylenetetramine 1 part, Sodium carbonate 0,05 parts

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: Hard, Probably suitable as booster.

In bulk: maybe >100

Longterm storage: N/A Keep out of contact with metals as they will react with many. Must be handled very carefully.

Lead Styphnate: 5200 M/S, sensitive to static electricity discharge, fairly weak primary explosive

Lead Picrate: N/A+ M/S, form: yellow needles, impact-friction-sensitivity: extremely high, water sense: moderate

Material: Picric acid 1 part, Lead monoxide 1 part, Methyl alcohol 8 parts

Detonation: blasting cap/booster charge (28g)

Difficulty to produce: N/A

In bulk: maybe >100 but too weak as primary, needs booster.

Longterm storage: N/A

Dithekite: N/A M/S,

Material: Nitric acid (90%) 2-3 parts, Nitrobenzene 1-1,2 parts

Detonation: blasting cap

Difficulty to produce: Easy-moderate

In bulk: highly volatile material >100 (for sake of safety, do not mix more than 14g at a time)

Longterm storage: should not be stored for more than 24 hours

Amatol 50/50: 6400 M/S

Material: TNT + AN

Blasting Gelatin: 7200 M/S, form: light yellow gelatin, Impact sens: very high, Frict sens: moderately low, water sens: none

Material: nitroclycerin 9 parts, nitrocellulose: 1 part

Difficulty to produce: Hard

What is the most available oxidizer?

* Hydrogen peroxide and other inorganic Peroxides

* Nitric acid and Nitrates

* Chlorite, chlorate, perchlorate, and other analogous halogen compounds

* Hypochlorite and other hypohalite compounds such as bleach

* Iodine and other halogens

* Ozone

* Nitrous oxide (N2O)

* Silver oxide

* Permanganate salts

* Hexavalent chromium compounds such as chromic and dichromic acids and chromium trioxide, pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC), and chromate/dichromate compounds

* Persulfuric acid

* Sulfoxides

* Sulfuric acid

* Tollens’ reagent

* 2,2′-Dipyridyldisulfide aka DPS

* Osmium tetroxide (OsO4)

Great Sources:

  1. Revised black Book – A Guide To Field-Manufactured Explosives – William Wallace

Sources for base chemicals – where to buy chemicals?

The “base chemicals acquisition phase” requires you to educate yourself about this topic. This took me some time, primarily because I looked in the wrong places and was thus unable to locate sources. The manufacturers for these base chemicals will usually be found within national or EU borders. I will try to shed some light on how to approach the research of sources and present a few tips;

To my surprise; I learned that my own country had at least one forum where the acquisitions of chemicals were discussed. And if my country, of 5 million, has it, then most countries will. The forum you are looking for are pyro(technique) forums for the so called pyro(technique) enthusiasts. These people are usually non-political but they love to blow things up and/or create various light shows. They usually create very specific supplier lists for a majority of chemicals that can be used in an explosives device. Most of them operate in a “gray area” so they act as a perfect source for getting both supplier tips and “shipping tips”. Many of them order online (this works as very few of the compounds are illegal, just regulated) while others take road trips to f example Poland to get materials directly from small factories. These materials are then smuggled without problems to the country of destination. Many of these East-Block factories will sell most chemicals to you as long as you seem like a credible buyer (non-Muslim, non-extremist).

Suppliers are divided into the following three categories (example chems):

  1. Apothecaries/drug stores

Glyserol [C3H5(OH)3]

Hydrogen Peroxide [H2O2], also found in 6 and 7

Potassium Nitrate/saltpetre [KNO3], also in 2 as brand name, 4, 6 and 7

Nitric Acid[HNO3], also in 4, 6, 7

Sulphur/Sulfur [S], also in 6, 7

  1. Hard ware stores/paint stores/car utility stores/furniture stores/home utility shops:

Acetone

Aluminium

  1. Hobby air-plane shops etc.:

Nitromethane 15-30% mix

  1. Farming suppliers/garden stores:

Ammonium Nitrate (pure AN or alternatively CAN 27 fertilizer)

Potassium Chloride, but also in 7

  1. Sport shops/camping shops:

Ice pack: pure ammonium nitrate

Hexamine [C6H12N4],but also found in 2 and 6

  1. Chemical suppliers/pyrotech suppliers (supplies companies usually):

Ammonium perchlorate [NH4ClO4]

Potassium Chlorate

  1. Ebay/other online stores

So what you basically have to do is start researching suppliers for your country;

Example Google (or national) search terms: “where to buy xxx” etc. Remember; don’t try to browse your way to the best results. Your goal is to locate national pyrotech forums, which in turn will provide you with the information you need.

When ordering AN from your agricultural supplier

I recently learned that our national agricultural supplier does indeed have purer forms of AN (34% nitrogen instead of the more common CAN fertilizer with 27%), so called: N34 fertilizer (34-0-0). They don’t market it though and they only sell it in 600 kg bags. You should check with in your respective country whether this is the case or not. If no N34 fertilizer is available, then CAN27 fertilizer will work as well. Before you call your farming supplier and make the actual order you should take the following precautions:

  • Create a company with an appropriate name (preferably 1-2 years prior to first order)

  • Join an interest organization for small/medium farmers

  • Join the organization related to the main agricultural supplier; create a company customer profile and register your organization number

  • Make the order as soon as possible and up to 6 months prior to delivery. f example; if you want the fertilizer bags delivered in May, order them in November. The agricultural supplier prefers early orders as they book your order into their distribution/delivery schedule. They deliver hundreds of thousands of tons of fertilizer annually so making an early order will not only save you money (as the prices are term based); it will likely ensure that you will avoid the scrutiny reserved to a larger degree for “more unknown customers” who wants “sudden large orders” of nitrogen-only bags.

  • Ensure that you can provide a delivery address (where you want the big bags delivered). If you haven’t yet rented a small farm/cottage you can explain to them that you are planning a test production next spring of a crop that requires the specified fertilizers you are ordering.

  • Create a credible cover story in case anyone asks why you are buying the fertilizer and how and when you plan to distribute it in your field. Do your due diligence and research basic farming methods and similar knowledge. F example, you should have the theoretical knowledge on how to disperse the fertilizer in your field and when and how to provide the water required, if rain alone isn’t sufficient. You should familiarize yourself with the basic farm equipment and tools which is needed to distribute the fertilizer in your fields in case you are presented with “security questions” from your supplier.

  • Consider to buy the actual seeds for the crop you have selected and inexpensive equipment together with the fertilizer purchase. This will strengthen the credibility of the transaction as it will act in your favour in relation to avoiding suspicion.

  • Don’t take the chance of only buying 2 bags of CAN27 or N34. Instead, consider making an order for f example: order 1 large bag of non-nitrogen fertilizer (perhaps even two) in addition to ordering 1 x 500 kg bag of CAN27 and 1 x 500 kg bag of N34. This will strengthen the credibility of the transaction as it will act in your favour when it comes to avoiding suspicion.

  • Ensure that you have the required tools/facility in order to handle the delivery when receiving the order. If you ordered 3-4 bags (2 AN bags and 1-2 non-nitrogen “dummy bags”) you will need at least 3-4 wooden pallets (without metal nails), a jack that can handle weights up to 700 kg and a dry outhouse/garage with roof and a large enough door measuring at least 5-10m2. When the delivery man arrives you will ask him to place the bags on the pallets you have prepared. You will then use the jack to transport these pallets into your outhouse/barn/garage. When you have placed the 3-4, 500 kg bags inside you must cover the two nitrogen bags with a plastic cover (with straps) and ensure that the content is protected from moisture. Obviously, you don’t need to worry about the 1-2 other dummy bags as you ordered them just for show… 🙂

I haven’t actually used this method yet, myself, but this is the approach I will select shortly. I guess you will soon find out if I succeed or not. Remember; Confidence separates the winners from the losers, so good luck.

Countering the cultural Marxist/multiculturalist EUSSR counter strike

Keep in mind that the EUSSR regimes will adapt to this approach; perhaps as soon as after the first operation (as of 2011). So we risk that in the future; absolutely all farming companies will be likely to undergo extreme scrutiny. If this happens, we must adapt and create a new and modified strategy. This EUSSR counter strike will be countered by the Knights Templar by simply encouraging and advising our Justiciar Knights to actually buy/rent a small farm and successfully run it/harvest and sell the crops for one year, prior to the operation. By choosing this approach we will successfully nullify the expected counter-strategy which the EUSSR regimes will attempt to implement in order to adapt to the initial strategy I presented.

Required grooming/clothing/lifestyle standard for any and all personal contact with suppliers/couriers

If you meet a supplier/courier (FedEx/UPS couriers included) wearing a bomber jacket, with a military hair cut, neck/arm tattoos, while standing next to your hillbilly swamp jeep, you can be assured that he will report you to the authorities or refuse to sell/deliver anything. Always ensure that you follow tactical grooming/clothing/lifestyle standards and plan and execute an appropriate clothing/behavioral strategy. Conceal any visible tattoos etc.

The goal must be to look like, sound like and act like a well-educated European conservative pensioner type character. Think of this as an advanced psycho-social tactical façade required to succeed in your most critical of all phases; the chemical acquisition phase.

Example:

  • Clothing: Lacoste etc, conservative colours (low cost brands will not be as potent in sending the same “psycho-socio-economic signals” required to “trick/soothe” the target.)

  • Transportation: Hyundai Atos (pensioner grey). Yes, I know; it’s a really gay car but extremely effective at sending the signals you want to send to your surroundings. Very effective for cross border smuggling and it is easy to carve out 20-40 L storage space inside the lower part of the back seats.

  • Conservative hair cut. Avoid dying your hair black.

  • No visible piercings

  • No visible tattoos

  • Language: conservative, calm, concise. Unless you have a talent for acting; avoid small talk. Never talk about politics with suppliers/couriers. Act in a nice and friendly manner; smile!

The above comes natural to me, as I have learned to embrace this style (with the exception of the car, obviously), but I realize that this will be a hard psychological barrier to break for some people. In particular for “rebel-types” who feel they have to manifest their rebellious nature through physical manifestations (tattoos, hair style, fashion). Many of these individuals have traditionally loathed authority and traditional conservative principles. Accept it for what it is, adapt, and just do it. You will quickly notice that, with this new façade makeover, you will avoid all the scrutiny usually reserved for classical “suspect stereotypes” and manage to substantially increase the success rate of your acquirement phase. Don’t let your short term pride come in the way of succeeding operationally. So expect to swallow a few camels. Pain is temporary, after all, while pride is eternal. Your nation, your people and even the whole of Europe will be forever in your debt for your sacrifice.

Creating credible cover stories to avoid scrutiny for successful delivery of base chemicals

I’m going to repeat the following once again as its absolutely essential in the “chemicals acquisition phase”.

Create a company with an appropriate name (something specific enough to be relevant to fertilizer (CAN 27, 500 kg +) and chemical import and at the same time; vague enough to be able to order both. Would you succeed if you ordered in the name of Ali Muhammad from Jihadi Imports Ltd? In order to succeed you need to represent the exact opposite to ensure success. F example; London Geofarm/Research Institute/Agricultural Research/Nutrients Research etc.

Create and solidify your cover story

You also need a solid cover story in order to back up your “façade”. You have to memorize a 5 second “explanation pitch” for EVERY single supplier. You must expect that he will ask you a “security question”. These security questions will likely include why you are purchasing the product? So why did you buy the product again?

A multitude of cover stories

I have cover stories for at least 20 different scenarios. One being why I am creating explosives, in case they ever find out. I’m in the process of creating a mineral extraction company and have created and printed a 100 page professional looking prospectus which even specifies quite specific blasting locations. This should be enough to create a reasonable doubt if I ever get in a pre-operational judicial jam.

Nicotine cover story

Here is a copy of the email I sent to the supplier;

Hello,

My company is in the process of attempting to establish a market for e-cigarettes in Norway. In this context we are going to produce a test/research batch of these products with the intention of documenting the effects as a quit-smoking product. Our government’s main argument against allowing commercialization of these specific quit-smoking products is that there is lacking research on this area.

We are looking forward to pursue the possibility of choosing you as our main supplier of nicotine base once e-cigarettes can be commercialized in Norway. However, in this initial research phase we only require an initial 30 ml batch of 99% liquid nicotine.

I realize that there is a 1 L minimum order but we do not mind paying the full liter price for the 30 ml batch.

I assume that you will take all security precautions regarding safe shipping/packing/labeling considering the extremely toxic nature of the compound.

Thanks in advance and hope to hear from you soon.

Best regards,

Company xxx

Title xxx

Name xxx

Address xxx

Ph: xxx

Nitromethane hobby fuel

It is for your “insert hobby helicopter model here” and ensure that the specific model in fact uses nitro hobby fuel (such as f example Align T-Rex 600).

CAN 27 fertilizer, 500 kg+

This requires the most preparation of all acquisition phases. You must familiarize yourself with a specific crop, farming jargons and terminology. You must also rent a small farm/cottage for 2-4 months with an appropriate outhouse where you can process your big bag(s) of fertilizer in an anonymous manner. The outhouse/mini barn/garage will be used for unloading the big bag(s) of fertilizer, pulverizing the granules, mixing with fuel oil/alu dust and placing them into water proof 50 kg plastic bags. You would also need a pallet jack with a 800 kg lift capacity (sold used for >200 Euro) and an appropriate vehicle (used station wagon or something similar). The small farm you are renting is just for show (to prevent the supplier/fertilizer driver from becoming suspicious), as it is likely that you will use the option of ordering the 500 kg bag of fertilizer directly to this farm. A large truck will deliver the fertilizer to your “farm”, where you will have to meet him with a pallet jack. He will place the load on to your pallet jack which you then lift enough to clear the floor/ground for subsequent travel to your mini barn/garage/outhouse. Another alternative is that you acquire a truck and have the supplier load the 500 kg bag onto it. As you reach the anonymous surroundings of your mini barn/garage/outhouse you basically just place the content into 50 kg bags, unload, and travel to your supplier for the second load. The most important factor in this process is to avoid raising any red flags with your supplier. Consider ordering 6 months in advance to increase your credibility as a “legit” buyer. This, together with your company name, your farm/cottage w. outhouse/barn, etc. should be enough to avoid any and all supplier scrutiny.

Costs required: Renting farm/cottage for 6 months: 3000-6000 Euro, pallet jack: 200 Euro, used truck: 5000-15000 Euro (you can re-sell it after you are done though)

General chemical cover story

As there are a wide range of chemicals I will not cover them all. Just research the specific chemical in Wikipedia and you will see an overview of commercial/industrial uses. Make up an appropriate cover story for that specific chemical. Be creative;)

Explosive chemical cover story

If a compound has limited or no civilian uses, you should just say that you are a pyrotechnical enthusiast who are going to create a nice, low budget show for your sister’s wedding ceremony/new years eve in a rural area. And that you have been creating various pyrotechniques for years. There are several thousands of these enthusiasts all around Europe and many suppliers are familiar with them and their hobby. You don’t want to tell him any of this unless he specifically asks, though. Remember to research which pyrotechnique compound you are planning on creating, just in case.

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