2083 A European Declaration of Independence

August 2, 2011

1.24 Historically – Bosnia is Serbian Land

Filed under: Uncategorized — sitamnesty @ 11:30

It is well known fact that South Slavs settled in the Balkans in 7th century. The two largest tribes were Serbs and Croats. There was not much distinction between the two then and to this day the "two people" speak one and the same language. Till recently the language was known in world literature as Serbo-Croatian. The only outwardly difference between Serbs and Croats today is that the former are Orthodox while the later are Catholic Christians.

Geographical regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina were settled by the Serbs. There is no dispute about this in Western pre-1991 (pre-Bosnia-war) literature.

From: "Encyclopedia Britannica" Edition 1971, Volume 3, page 983, Entry: Bosnia, history

Serbian settlement in Bosnia-Herzegovina began in the seventh century A.D.

From: "Encyclopedia Britannica" Edition 1943, Vol 20, Page 341, Entry: Serbia, History

According to the emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the emperor Heraclius (610-640) invited the Serbs to settle in the devastated north-western provinces of the Byzantine empire and to defend them against the incursions of the Avars.

Toward the end of 9th century the political centre of the Serbs was transferred to Zeta (or: Zenta: see Montenegro) and the Primorye (sea-coast)… [Serbian] Prince Voislav of Travuniya (today: Trebinje [Herzegovina]) …united under his own rule Travuniya, Zahumlye (the modern Herzegovina) and Zeta. His son Michael Voislavich annexed the important Zhupania of Rashka (Rascia or Rassia) [Central Serbia], and in 1077 was addressed as king (rex) in a letter from Pope Gregory VII. His son Bodin enlarged the first Serb kingdom by annexing territories…

From: "Encyclopedia Britannica" Edition 1971, Vol 3, p 983, Entry: Bosnia-Herzegovina

[Serbian] King Bodin (1081-1101) united Bosnia with the other two Serbian principalities Rashka [Central Serbia] and Zeta [Montenegro]…

From: "Encyclopedia Britannica" Edition 1990, Volume 29, Macropedia, page 1098, Entry: Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

The emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (reigned 913-957) referred to Bosnia as part of the land of the Serbs.

From: "Yugoslavia, a Country Study"

Serbian groups settled the region of present-day Bosnia and Hercegovina during the seventh century… Bosnia or Bosna (from Bosna river) appears to have originated as a small principality in the mountainous region of the upper reaches of the Bosna and Vrbas rivers. The name Herzegovina originated in the fifteenth century when a powerful Bosnian noble, Stephen Vuksic, gained control of lands in the southern part of Bosnia and took the title of Herzog, the German equivalent of duke, from which came the name of the region.

Turkish conquest

That is it: Bosnia was Serbian only. There were no "Muslims" — not even a single family — for at least FIVE HUNDRED years! The Islamic onslaught on Europe started centuries later. For the Turks who wanted to conquer Europe for Allah, Balkans was the shortest route. Their immense armies were first stopped by heroic Serb resistance in a gigantic battle at Kosovo field in 1389. Some 70 years later the Turks recovered and took now defenceless Bosnia.

Centuries of peace the Serbs enjoyed in Bosnia were to be substituted with centuries long struggle to survive brutal tyranny by foreign oppressor.

In order to govern this, 100% Christian land, the Turks needed to find (in today’s terms) local quislings. In those ancient times, when religion was one’s alpha and omega of existence, the conquering Turks could not hope to convert Christians to Islam over night. Despite that, it turns out, Bosnia was somewhat fertile ground. The Turkish conquest left substantial portion of the population converted to Islam – more so than in other, vast Christian lands, governed by the Ottoman Empire.

There are few theories how it happened. The most prevalent theory present in Western literature claims that the Turks found an easy prey in Christian cult of Bogumilism. This is one of many theories, though. The opposing ones claim that Bogumilism, while quite present in Bosnia for some time, was extinct centuries before Turkish arrival.

As it was question of honour, not to abandon ones religion for the religion of the enemy, the process of conversion was a slow one. It took centuries. No-one disputes that. Also the process took many different forms, many of which were forms of forceful conversion. For sure those who converted to the religion of the oppressor immediately reaped benefits. Over night they would cease to be oppressed. They would not be hungry any more. The record of individual conversions for the last few centuries of the Ottoman rule was kept in the main archive in Sarajevo, which was in Muslim hands in the recent civil war. It burned to the ground with all the documents. The incident, as everything else, was blamed on the besieging Serbs even though it was in Muslim Serb, and certainly not in Christian Serb, interest for that to happen…

The slow process of betraying Christianity

From: "Yugoslavia, a Country Study"

Situated on the dividing line between the areas of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox religious influence, Bosnia and Herzegovina suffered from constant internal turmoil from the tenth through the fifteenth centuries. This situation was complicated by the introduction from Bulgaria of an ascetic heretical Christian cult — Bogumilism — during the twelfth century… Many Bosnian nobles and a large portion of the peasantry persisted in the heresy despite repeated attempts by both the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches to crush the cult. The chaos caused by this religious struggle laid the country open to the Ottoman Turks after they again defeated the [remaining, unconquered] Serbs in 1459. By 1463 the Turks controlled Bosnia and twenty years later gained control of Herzegovina; many Bogumil nobles and peasants accepted the Islamic religion of their conquerors.

From: "A History of the Balkans" by Professor Ferdinand Schevill, Barnes & Noble, New York, 1995, pp 202, 203

To the west of Serbia lay Bosnia,… a mountain region, like Serbia and racially homogeneous with it… [W]hole sections of the Bosnians did not scruple to see in Islam a deliverer. Numerous castles treacherously opened their gates to the enemy, and when the wretched Bosnian king, despairing of his cause, surrendered, he was, in spite of a solemn promise made in writing, cruelly decapitated under the eyes of the sultan (1462)… Mohamed held the convenient doctrine that a pledge made to a dog of an infidel possessed no binding character.

Thus Bosnia, sharp on the heel of Serbia, perished, and throughout Balkania the land of the Serbs with the single exception of the Zeta [future Montenegro], passed under the heel of the oppressor.

From: "A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples" by Professor Fred Singleton, Cambridge University Press, Edition 1985, page 20

The absorption of the heretic Bosnian (Bogumil) Church into the Islamic world did not come about as a result of a dramatic act of mass conversion, but, if Ottoman statistics is to be believed, it was a relatively rapid process. According to a census of 1489… 18.4 per cent of the population of Bosnia practised the Islamic faith… [T]he greatest increases were recorded… especially in the towns… Slav-speaking Muslim aristocracy came into existence. The 1.5 million Muslims in modern Bosnia, who are listed in the Yugoslav census [of 1981]… are descendents of those ealy converts.

From: "Yugoslavia, a Country Study"

The Islamised nobles were allowed to retain their lands and their feudal privileges, and the peasants who accepted Islam were granted land free from feudal obligations. The Christian nobles were killed and Christian peasants subjected to oppressive rule.

For more than four centuries, from the time of conquest in 1463 to 1878 when Western powers ordered them to relinquish Bosnia and Herzegovina and hand it over to the Austro-Hungarian empire control, the Turks ruled Bosnia. Their devoted quislings, the Serbs who betrayed Christianity in order to serve the Asiatic conqueror, identified with the foreign oppressor so much that Encyclopedia Britannica of 1910, finds Bosnian Muslims, now after more than 20 years under Christian rule still wanting everyone to call them – Turks! These "Turks," though can speak only one language – the same language that Serbs and Croats speak: Serbo-Croatian.

Let us take a closer look into the origin of the terms "Bosnian," "Bosniak," "Bosnitch." Do Bosnian Muslims have an exclusive right, as exercised by the Western press in these days, to call themselves "Bosnians?"

Source:

http://srpska-mreza.com/History/pre-wwOne/Bosnia-conquered.html

1.25 Who are the Bosniaks?

Encyclopedia Britannica, eleventh edition (year: 1910 (!)), Volume IV, page 281,

entry "Bosnia and Herzegovina", subentry (#10), Population and National Characteristics (quote:)

In 1895 the population, which tends to increase slowly… numbered 1,568,092. The alien element is small, consisting chiefly of Austro-Hungarians, gipsies, Italians and Jews. Spanish is a common language of the Jews, whose ancestors fled Hither, during the 16th century, to escape the Inquisition.

The natives are officially described as Bosniaks, but classify themselves according to religion. Thus the Roman Catholics prefer the name of Croats, Hrvats or Latins; the Orthodox, of Serbs; the Moslems, of Turks.

All alike belong to the Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race; and all speak a language almost identical to Serbian, though written by the Roman Catholics in Latin instead of Cyrillic letters.

To avoid offending either Serbs or Croats, it is officially designated Bosnitch…. The Bosnians or Bosniaks resemble their Serbian kindfolk in both appearance and character. They have the same love for poetry, music and romance; the same *intense* pride in their race and history; many of the same superstitions and customs. The Christians retain the Serbian costume, modified in detail, as the occasional use of the turban or fez. The "Turkish" women have in some districts abandoned the veil; but in others they even cover the eyes when they leave home.

This clearly tells explains "tolerance" — in 1910 — between those who call themselves "Serbs", "Croats" and "Turks". The three ethnic groups of Bosnia would rather be called Bosnians (English), Bosnitch (German) or Bosanci (in Serbo-Croatian) because a Croat would be *offended* to be called a "Turk", "Turk" a Serb etc. It is surprising to read that Muslims liked to be called "Turks" during the government of Austro-Hungaria. Muslims are Serbs or Croats, but mostly Serbs, who, through centuries converted to Islam).

We have to remind you that the above text was written in 1910, i.e. before Muslims (the "Turks") and Croats committed unspeakable atrocities on their Serbian neighbours (in World War I and World War II).

We have seen, once again, how Muslims have showed unbelievable chauvinism and intolerance toward the Serbs. (They did it for the third time in this, twentieth century alone). The Muslims demanded to separate from the Serbs, even though the only difference is the religion (The language and everything else is the same). It is a dangerous precedent to declare a group of people a new nation just because they are of different religion. Many countries would over-night become "multi-ethnic".

On the other hand, let it be clear, if the Muslims insist to have their own state then no-one should deny them their right for self-determination. And no Serb was denying them that right. Serbs were not denying the Muslims right to form a state in a portion of Bosnia where they, the Muslims, are majority population.

But if there is to be any peace or justice then the Serbs should have exactly the same right. Wherever the Muslims were majority before the war – they can govern that territory any way they like it. But wherever the Serbs were majority, according to the U.N. Charter – they have right for self-determination the same way. The Serbs have right to exist. They have right to form their own state. And No Communist design should have precedent over the rights of the living human beings.

Today, the Muslims, with backing of the Western powers, want to usurp the right for the entire Bosnia – even though they are MINORITY there. Muslims want to usurp the right for themselves to be the only people called Bosnians. In other words they want to be the only ones to rule the entire Bosnia.

Thus, let us remind you, once again, the Serbs are also the indigenous people of Bosnia. Actually they were the *first* Slav tribe to settle there.

Source:

http://srpska-mreza.com/History/pre-wwOne/Mus_who.html

Muslims oppressed Christians in Bosnia

From: "The Balkans," pp 43 45, Time-Life World Library, by Edmund Stillman and the Editors of Life, Time Inc., New York, 1967

From mid-15th century for the next four centuries(!) the Serbian and Croatian Christians of Bosnia suffered tyrannical rule.

Four (4) centuries of Islamic tyranny in Bosnia

If any single factor made the Balkans what they were in history — and what they still are today — it was the ordeal of the Turk… For the 18th and 19th Centuries, the image of Turkey was that of a rotting empire, of a corrupt, incompetent and sadistic national elite preying on the subject Balkan peoples – of a cynical government whose very method of rule was atrocity.

[T]hey forbade the building of all but the meanest churches, and likewise outlawed the ringing of church bells.

What was damaging to the Balkan peoples was [that]… they had been stripped of pride and freedom. As Christians, they were now despised…

[T]he Turkish over-lordship created a Balkan mosaic of legal, social and economic relations… What was uniform to all [subdued Christians] was the experience of alien over-lordship and the legacy of violence as the cohesion and power of the Empire declined. When the Empire passed its apex of power in the 17th and 18th Centuries, the conditions of the subject peoples took a catastrophic turn for the worse… It was in these… years that the proverb came into vogue: "Where the Turk trod, no grass grows." Within the Empire, the 17th and 18th Century military officials, the beys and dahis, savagely oppressed the people; they were scarcely to be distinguished from the robber bands…

On the frontiers, [which is where Bosnia was] war — and with it the parallel evils of yearly murder, rape and arson — became as regular as the cycle of season.

The above quote is from: "Origin of the Myth of a Tolerant Pluralistic Islamic Society" Bat Ye’Or, Chicago, August 31, 1995

In the Serbian regions, the most fanatical opponents of Christian emancipation were the Muslims Bosniacs…

A systematic enquiry into the condition of the Christians was conducted by British consuls in the Ottoman Empire in the 1860s. Britain was then Turkey’s strongest ally. It was in its own interest to see that the oppression of the Christians would be eliminated in order to prevent any Russian or Austrian interference. Consul James Zohrab sent from Bosna-Serai (Sarajevo) a lengthy report, dated July 22, 1860, to his ambassador in Constantinople, Sir Henry Bulwer, in which he analyzed the administration of the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He stated that from 1463 to 1850 the Bosniac Muslims enjoyed all the privileges of feudalism. During a period of nearly 400 years Christians were subjected to much oppression and cruelty. For them no other law but the caprice of their masters existed… Under false accusations imprisonments are of daily occurrence. A Christian has but a small chance of exculpating himself when his opponent is a Muslim."

The above quote is from: "The Serbian People" by P. Lazarovich-Hrebelianovich & Eleanor Calhoun New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910, The excerpt is from Chapter VII: "The Serbians under Turkish rule from about 1470 to about 1800"

In the year 1413 the southern Serbian provinces were unable longer to hold out against the Turks. Serbia in 1459, Bosnia in 1463, and Herzegovina in 1481 were all finally conquered and became Turkish provinces.

The basis of Ottoman power was the sword and the Ottoman State was and is an organised theocracy.

The Mohammedan religion is not a religion in the Christian sense of involving principally the problems of morality, spiritual growth, and immortality. Mohammedanism is a state of society founded on a collection of laws and legal principles dealing with and ruling every event of individual and public life. The vast community of believers in various countries of the world basing the entire political, social, and religious fabric on that collection of laws, and the mystical, ethical, and philosophical tenets given by Mahomet in the Koran, afterward developed by the masters of the "Four Schools" of Mohammedan teaching, forms "Islam."

For that reason where Islam is master no other civil status is recognised except in tolerance and in subordination to Islam. There can be no assimilation with people of other creeds or civilisation. The perception of that fact was vividly set forth in the arguments of that Sultan, in the seventeenth century, who urged that as Moslem victor and Christian vanquished could never make one people, Ottoman domination could become secure only by the universal slaughter of all Christians in conquered territories. Up to our own time that conclusion has haunted Stamboul [Istanbul] like an evil dream.

The conquered Christian populations were disarmed and dispossessed of all property, and were soon pressed into a condition of serfdom under Turkish masters. They were called "giours" and in the mass the "rayah," "the herd." Whoever renounced his faith and became a Mohammedan was thereby instantly naturalised into Islam, receiving the status and all the life-chances of a born Osmanili [Turk]. That was the sole means in his power of escaping from the subjected masses or of opening a door of opportunity.

The Serbians in general refused to accept that door of escape from durancevile, and remained true to their Christian and national faith, even though the long night of practical extinction, hoping for a dawn though long deferred.

Many of the Serbian nobles and numbers of the common people fled to Serb lands under Venice or those under Hungary [i.e. to Krajina]. Certain ones among the nobles and others became Moslems, thereby preserving their lands and castles, and authority was given to them under the Turks as Pashas, Beys, Agas, and Spahis. They became ranged, in the eyes of the general populations, on the side of the conquerors, and were looked upon by the people as Turks.

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, where the inhabitants had not only been subject to Turkish attack, but had been obliged as well to stand, ever beating back Hungarian invasions, the greater part of the nobles, mostly Bogomils, went over in body to Mohammedanism.

Large numbers of Serbs, loyal to their faith and home traditions, escaped to the mountain fastnesses from which they were able to harass the Turks of the plains and so maintain a relative independence.

The Serbians of the Rayah lived under great oppression and humiliation, their only means of protection being through the Serbian Patriarch so long as one existed.

In case of acts of injustice or violence suffered at the hands of individual Turks, there was no possible redress. The Christians were forbidden the use of horses or camels, only mules and asses being allowed them. They were forbidden to ride even a mule or an ass in the presence of a Turk. It was not permitted that their houses should have a better appearance than Turkish houses. For their faith they had much to suffer. The clergy, few in number, were kept in miserable conditions, and churches which had been destroyed were not allowed to be rebuilt, the building of new churches being strictly forbidden. The sound of church bells was forbidden as was also the reading aloud of the Holy Scriptures or the pronunciation of the name of Jesus Christ.

It was not lawful to make the sign of the cross, to show a cross, or to eat pork in sight of a Turk.

The Rayah were not allowed openly to bury their dead; Christian burials tookplace at night or in secret; mourning for the dead was strictly prohibited either by costume or by symbol or in any other way.

Church services were often held in some secluded spot in forest or glen, sometimes under a chosen tree marked with a cross; or ordinary houses were built as if for a family, with a central hearth, and sometimes with surrounding storehouse and stable to avoid suspicion, and were consecrated and used secretly as churches. Such houses still exist in Macedonia.

From: "The Balkans," page 44, Time-Life World Library by Edmund Stillman and the Editors of LIFE, Time Inc., New York, 1967

Tax in blood

In Ottoman Empire Christians were but slaves at nonexistent mercy of their Muslim lords. Many, many Western books write about different horrors the Christians endured. One form of oppression was that Muslims gave themselves "right of the first night". In practice it meant that Turkish (or local Muslim Slav) lord would spend the first night with the new Christian bride. The groom had to take shoes off and silently circle the house while the Turk makes love to his wife.

Still, by far the worst horror the Christians had to endure was the Turkish Janissary system. Western schollars frequently downplay the importance of this "Tax in Blood" as Christian subjects nicknamed it:

Conversion to Islam – through kidnapping

While any subject boy might aspire to the highest rank in the Turkish Empire, he had to convert to Islam to do so; when the security of the Ottoman state demanded, there were forced conversions. Every four years the most vigorous boys were taken from the towns and villages, willingly or not, to be trained as Janissaries (a word from the Turkish yeni cheri, or new troops).

From: "Origin of the Myth of a Tolerant Pluralistic Islamic Society" Bat Ye’Or, Chicago, August 31, 1995

The Devshirme system is well known. Begun by the Sultan Orkhan (1326-1359), it existed for about 300 years. It consisted of a regular levy of Christian children from the Christian population of the Balkans. These youngsters, aged from fourteen to twenty, were Islamised and enslaved for their army. The periodic levies, which took place in contingents of a thousand, subsequently became annual. To discourage runaways, children were transferred to remote provinces and entrusted to Muslim soldiers who treated them harshly as slaves. Another parallel recruitment system operated. It provided for the levy of Christian children aged six to ten (Ichoghlani), reserved for the sultans’ palace. Entrusted to eunuchs, they underwent a tyrannical training for fourteen years.

The first presentation above sounds almost idyllic: A boy dreams of obtaining "high rank in the Empire" or some boys "were taken" from their parents in order to achieve glorious carrier in Turkish Army.

What it actually meant was that the hated Turks would kidnap your child and – even worse – return it, now as a Muslim and your worse enemy!

How can anyone put it in words? Dr. Ivo Andrich, who was born in Bosnia was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1961 for his novels about Bosnian Christian suffering. Encyclopedia Britannica (Micropedia, Edition 1986, Vol 1, Page 393, entry: Andric, Ivo) said (quote):

Andric’s work reveals his deterministic philosophy and his sense of compassion and is written objectively and soberly, in language of great beauty and purity. The Nobel Prize committee commented particularly on the "ephic force" with which he handled his material, especially in "The Bridge on the Drina".

Let the master of literature talk. Here is an excerpt from the above mentioned Nobel Prize book "Bridge on the Drina," which describes how this "tax in blood" felt, as it is told and retold chilling blood of generations of surviving Christians of Bosnia.

On that November day a long convoy of laden horses arrived on the left bank of the river and halted there to spend the night. The Aga of the janissaries, with armed escort, was returning to Stambul after collecting from the villages of eastern Bosnia the appointed number of Christian children for the blood tribute.

the necessary number of healthy, bright and good looking lads between ten and fifteen years old had been found without difficulty, even though many parents had hidden their children in the forests, taught them how to appear half witted, clothed them in rags and let them get filthy, to avoid the Aga’s choice. Some even went so far as to maim their own children, cutting off one of their fingers with an axe.

a little way behind the last horses in that strange convoy straggled, dishevelled and exhausted, many parents and relatives of those children who were being carried away forever to a foreign world where they would be circumcised, become Turkish and, forgetting their faith, their country and their origin, would pass their lives in the service of the Empire. They were for the most part women, mothers, grandmothers and sisters of the stolen children.

[The women would get driven away but] .gather again a little later behind the convoy and strive with tear-filled eyes to see once again over the panniers the heads of the children who were being taken from them. The mothers were especially persistent and hard to restrain. Some would rush forward not looking where they were going, with bare breasts and dishevelled hair, forgetting everything about them, wailing and lamenting as if at a burial, while others almost out of their minds moaned as if their wombs were being torn by birthpangs and blinded with tears ran right onto the horsemen’s whips and replied to every blow with the fruitless question: "Where are you taking him? Why are you taking him from me?" Some tried to speak clearly to their children and give them some last part of themselves, as much as might be said in a couple of words, some recommendation or advice for the way… "Rade, my son, don’t forget your mother…’ "Ilija, Ilija, Ilija!" screamed another woman, searching desperately with her glances for the dear well-known head and repeating this incessantly as if she wished to carve into the child’s memory that name which would in a day or two be taken from him forever.

Mother’s cries must still be echoing Bosnian mountains.

It should not pass without mention that once Westerners conquered Bosnia, recently, one of the first thing they did in the course of "engineering democracy" (and while trying to impose Muslim rule on Bosnian Serbs) was to ban use of Dr. Andrich’s works from school books for the Serbian children. It is as if one was to ban Shakespeare in England!

Andrich’s books were translated in all languages of the West. His, above cited book "The Bridge on the Drina" can be found in any decent size library in the West. It tells volumes about total collapse of Western culture and morality that the same Western nations which praized Bosnian author in 1961 – banned his works few decades later.

Bosnian Muslims outdid Turks in atrocity

From: "A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples" by Professor Fred Singleton, Cambridge University Press, Edition 1985, pp 20-21

Again, the Serbian grief was amplified by the fact that these returning children, now Janissaries were the most intolerant, most militant Muslims. As the time was passing and the central rule in the Empire was dying out, it was Janissaries who actually governed Bosnia. They were the ones who were the most oppressive and cruel. When Great Britain (in trying to repel Russia from the Balkans, in its self-imposed, everlasting "Great Game") insisted that Turkish sultan should give equal rights to his Christian subjects, Janissaries of Bosnia were the ones who started a rebellion to topple the sultan.

Worse "Turks" than Turks

During the heyday of the Ottoman rule in Europe the Bosnian Muslims played an important part in administration of the empire, one of them, Mehmet Sokolovic, rising to be grand vizier to the sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent, in the sixteenth century. Bosnian Muslims also provided the Ottoman bureaucracy in Hungary after the battle of Mohacs in 1526. At lower level of administration, the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christian peasants of the raya were governed by Slav Muslim landowners, who, whilst retaining their Slavonic speech, adopted the manners and dress of the Turkish court. Like many converts, they often ‘out-Ottomaned the Ottomans in their religious zeal’.

The above quote is from: "A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples" by Professor Fred Singleton, Cambridge University Press, Edition 1985, page 75

The janissaries, who were once the elite corps of the sultan army, had degenerated by the end of the eighteenth century into an unrully and lawless rabble, who were at best an embarrassment and at worst threat to their rulers… Sultan Mahmud I (1730-54) attempted to disband the janissaries and to put in their place a modern force, modelled on the standing armies of his European enemies. Unfortunately for the Serbs, he was only partly successful. In an attempt to remove the influence of the janissaries from Istanbul, where they naturally formed a powerful opposition to his reforms, Mahmud tried to buy them off by offering them a virtually free hand in garrisoning the remote provinces of the empire [like Bosnia and Hercegovina]. There they could plunder and abuse the local peasantry with impunity, even dispossessing them from their lands. … Mahmud may have bought time for himself, but he stored up trouble for his successors.

From: Encyclopedia Britannica, Edition 1910, Volume 4, page 284

The reform of the Ottoman government contemplated by the sultan Mahmud II (1808-1839) was BITTERLY RESENTED in Bosnia… Many of the janissaries had married and settled on the land, forming a strongly conservative and FANATICAL caste, friendly to the Moslem nobles, who now dreaded the curtailment of their own privileges. Their opportunity came in 1820, when the Porte [the Turkish government] was striving to repress the insurrection in Moldavia, Albania and Greece. A first Bosnian revolt was crushed in 1821, a second, due principally to the massacres of the jannissaries, was quelled with much bloodshed in 1827. After Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29, a further attempt at reform was initiated by the sultan and his grand vizier, Reshid Pasha. Two years later came a most formidable outbreak: the sultan was denounced as false to Islam, and the Bosnian nobles gathered in Banjaluka (Bosnia), determined to march to Constantinople, and reconquer the Ottoman Empire for the true [Islam] faith.

A Jihad was preached by their leader, Hussein Aga Berberi, a brilliant soldier and orator, who called himself Zmaj Bosanski [dragon of Bosnia], and was regarded by his followers as a saint. The Moslems of Herzegovina, under Ali Pasha Rizvanbegovic, remained loyal to the Porte, but in Bosnia Hussein Aga encountered little resistance. At Kossovo he was reinforced by 20,000 Albanians, led by Mustapha Pasha, and within a few weeks the united armies occupied the whole of Bulgaria, and large part of Macedonia. Their career was checked by Reshid Pasha, who persuaded the two victorious commanders to intrigue against one another, secured the division of their forces, and then fell upon each in turn.

The rout of the Albanians at Prilipe and the capture of Mustapha at Scutari were followed by an invasion of Bosnia. After a desperate defence, Hussein Aga fled to Esseg in Croatia-Slavonia, his appeal for pardon was rejected, and in 1832 he was banished for life in Tribizond.

The power of the Bosnian nobles, though shaken by their defeat, remained unbroken, and they resisted vigorously when their kapetanates were abolished in 1837, and again when a measure of equality before the law was conceded to the Christians in 1839.

In Herzegovina, Ali Pasha Rizvanbegovic reaped the reward of his fidelity. He was left free to tyrannise over his Christian subjects, a king in all but name.

Is this not exactly opposite of the current claim the Western media repeatedly promotes? Are they not telling us that "Islam is a tolerant religion?" Since when!? Are we all from Mars? How can anyone delete the horror of Muslim oppression over Christians and Jews which lasted for centuries and stretched over continents?

Where are the roots of the above myth wondered author Bat Ye’Or. She then spent decades studying the issue. Finally she wrote a few books on the subject.

1.26 Historical Islamic demographic warfare in Kosovo

In the early 7th century, Serbs settled in Balkans (including Kosovo). In the 12th century, according to the Byzantine Empress Anna Angelina Komnenos, the Serbs were the main inhabitants of Kosovo (Eastern Dalmatia and former Moesia Superior). Archaeological findings from the 7th century onwards show a Serb (Slavic) cultural domination in case of glagolithic letters, pottery, cemeteries, churches and monasteries.

14th century

The Dečani Charter from 1330 contained a detailed list of households and chartered villages in Metohija and north-western Albania:

3 of 89 settlements were Albanian, the other being Serb.

15th century

The ethnic composition of Kosovo’s population during this period included Serbs, Albanians, and Vlachs along with a token number of Greeks, Armenians, Saxons, and Bulgarians, according to Serbian monastic charters or chrysobulls (Hristovulja). A majority of the given names in the charters are overwhelmingly Serbian (Of 24,795 names, 23,774 were ethnic Serb names, 470 of Roman origin, 65 of Albanian origin and 61 of Greek origin). This claim is supported by the Turkish cadastral tax-census (defter) of 1455 which took into account religion and language and found an overwhelming Serb majority.

1455: Turkish cadastral tax census (defter) of the Brankovic dynasty lands (covering 80% of present-day Kosovo) recorded 480 villages, 13,693 adult males, 12,985 dwellings, 14,087 household heads (480 widows and 13,607 adult males). Totally there were around 75,000 inhabitants in 590 villages comprising modern-day Kosovo. By ethnicity:

13,000 Serb dwellings present in all 480 villages and towns

75 Vlach dwellings in 34 villages

46 Albanian dwellings in 23 villages

17 Bulgarian dwellings in 10 villages

5 Greek dwellings in Laua, Vučitrn

1 Jewish dwelling in Vučitrn

1 Croat dwelling

1487: A census of the House of Branković

Vučitrn district:

16,729 Christian housing (412 in Pritina and Vučitrn)

117 Moslem households (94 in Pritina and 83 in rural areas)

Ipek (Peć) district:

City of Ipek – 68% Serbs

121 Christian household

33 Moslem households

Suho Grlo and Metohija:

131 Christian household of which 52% in Suho Grlo were Serbs

Kline e Poshtme/Donja Klina – 50% Serbs

Dečani – 64% Serbs

Rural areas:

6,124 Christian housings (99%)

55 Moslem houses (1%)

17th – 18th century

The Great Turkish War of 16831699 between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs led to the flight of a substantial part of Kosovan Serbian population to Austrian held Vojvodina and the Military Frontier – about 60-70,000 Serb refugees total settled in the Habsburg Monarchy in that time of whom many were from Kosovo. Following this an influx of Muslim Albanian[14] from the highlands (Malesi) occurred, mostly into Metohija. The process continued in 18th century.

Noel Malcolm suggests that the Great Migration of the Serbs from Kosovo is only a myth created by Serbian nationalism to justify the Albanian majority already in Kosovo[15], but a number of historians who reviewed his work, including Mile Bjelajac, Istvan Deak, Thomas Emerat and Tim Judah refute this[16].

A study done in 1871 by Austrian colonel Peter Kukulj for the internal use of the Austro-Hungarian army showed that the mutesarifluk of Prizren (corresponding largely to present-day Kosovo) had some 500,000 inhabitants, of which:

318,000 Serbs (64%),

161,000 Albanians (32%),

10,000 Roma (Gypsies) and Circassians

2,000 Turks

Milo S. Milojević travelled the region in 18711877 and left accounts which testify that Serbs were majority population, and were predominant in all cities, while Albanians were minority and lived mostly in villages. According to his data, Albanians were majority population in southern Drenica (Muslim Albanians), and in region around Djakovica (Catholic Albanians), while the city was majorly Serbian. He also recorded several settlements of Turks, Romas and Circassians.

Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographic_history_of_Kosovo

Islamic Demographic Warfare in Kosovo

By M. Bozinovich

One of the Albanian claims for independence of Kosovo is the ethnic makeup of the region. The argument points that Kosovo was majority Albanian populated hence it should be, at the most, given to Albania or at least granted international recognition as an independent state.

Table 1: Kosovo Population

 

Albanian

Serbian

1948

498,242

199,961

 

68.46%

27.47%

1953

524,559

221,212

 

64.93%

27.38%

1961

646,148

264,604

 

67.06%

27.46%

1971

916,168

259,819

 

73.67%

20.89%

1981

1,226,736

236,525

 

77.42%

14.93%


The initial 1948 Albanian majority was a result of the Yugoslav governments prohibition on refugee returns, mostly Serbs that have been deported by Albanian Nazis in WWII.

The increasing homogenisation of Kosovos population in favour of Albanians has been achieved by means of systematic and institutionalised political and economic repression of Kosovo Serbs. The repression was institutionalised with increased autonomy powers granted to Kosovo in the 1960s and especially in 1974.

The increased homogenisation of Kosovo in the Muslim Albanian favour is also a result of the birth rate (also known as demographic warfare): Albanians simply have more children then the Serbs.

Given that a parabola appropriately models Kosovo Serb population trend, the analysis strongly suggests that Kosovo Serbs have also been exposed to ethnic animosity and/or genocidal policies.

Serb vs Jewish demographic trend 1900-1941

A similar, but not so peculiar population trend is the Jewish experience under Nazi Germany. While the pre-Hitlerian cultural anti-Semitism in Germany was institutionalised, by 1941 hate of Jews was turned into an exterminatory policy. Out of 615,000 Jews in Germany in 1910, virtually none were left by 1945.

Both Jews under Nazis and Serbs under Albanian-dominated Kosovo exhibit the same downward depopulation trend. To the extent that Kosovo Serb population trend line is a parabola, there is a strong evidence to suggest then that Kosovo Serbs have been exposed to a level of ethnic duress sufficient enough to induce them to migrate out of Kosovo.

Source:

http://www.serbianna.com/columns/mb/004.shtml

Material to study:

1. Enver Hoxha – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enver_Hoxha

2. Albanian nationalism – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albanian_nationalism

3. Greek Christians vs Albanian Muslims – Chameria issue – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chameria_issue

4. Code of Lek (Code of Leke/Kanun) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_Lek%C3%AB (Local Sharia equivalency used by Muslim Albanians when it comes to regulating womens rights)

This law in tandem with Sharia was instrumental when implementing the past and current Albanian Muslim demographic warfare (Breed the non-Muslims out strategy before and after WW2).

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